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Flashcards in The Brain Deck (95):
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Two types of nervous system

Central and peripheral

1

Central Nervous System

Brain & Spinal Cord
Does not need conductive tissue --> has meninges and cerebrospinal fluid q

2

Cluster of Neurons in the CNS is called

A nucleus
Found only in CNS

3

Nerve fibers in the CNS called

Tracts

4

Glial Cells in the CNS are called

Oligodendrocytes

5

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CBS)

Found in CNS
Formed in ventricels
Circulates in sub. arachnoid space

6

Cluster of neurons in the PNS is called

Ganglian

7

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) includes what two pairs of nerves

12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves
Needs conductive tissue

8

Nerve fibres in the PNS are called

Nerves

9

Glial cells in the PNS are called

Schwann Cells

10

The three meninges are

Dura Mater
Arachnoid Membrane
Pia Mater

11

Dura Mater

Top later of meninge --> brain
Formed by meso
Thickest meninge
Protective covering b/w skull and brain
Lots of collagen

12

Arachnoid membrane

Joins Dura Mater to Pia Mater
Gives off connective tissue

13

Pia Mater

Very thin layer in the brain
Goes into every nook and cranny
Ectoderm

14

Subarachnoid space

Where CSF circulates

15

Define:

the somatic nervous system

the sub-system of the PNS responsible for the voluntary control of muscle functioning and the detection of stimuli through the body's sensory receptors.

16

Define:

the sympathetic nervous system

sub-system of the autonomic nervous system that acts to prepare the body for physical or mental activity, particularly in the fight-or-flight response.

17

definition of the autonomic nervous system

is the sub-system of the PNS responsible for subconscious, involuntary, visceral functions that maintain the body at a homeostatic state.

18

parasympathetic nervous system

sub-system of the autonomic nervous system responsible for "rest and digest", or the overall slow-down of the body's functions in order to conserve energy.

19

What two types of cells comprise the nervous system?

neurons and glial cells

20

Ependyma

Epithelial lining of the ventricular system in the brain

21

How many ventricles does the brain have

Four

22

Where is CSF formed

In the 4 ventricles by the choroid plexus

23

Neurons

Excitable
Carry electrical signals
3 Types -> unipolar, bipolar, multipolar

24

Define:

a glial cell

support the neuronal cells within the nervous system by providing nourishment, protection, and physical support.

25

Define:

a synapse

location where the axon of one neuron connects to the dendrite of the next.

26

Types of glial cells

Oligodendrocytes
Schwann cELLS
Astroglia
Microglia

27

White matter

CNS: made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter to each other.
Myelin sheaths

28

Grey matter

CNS: pinkish-grey color in the living brain, contains the cell bodies, dendrites and axon terminals of neurons, so it is where all synapses are.

29

Epinueurium

Common external connective tissue sheath covering a nerve in the PNS

30

Nerve Fascicle

Axons that are grouped together in a nerve in the PNS

31

Perineurium

Covers axon fascicles in nerves

32

Endoneurium

Covers one nerve fibre in PNS

33

Astroglia

Nb for metabolic activity
- Recycling neurotransmitters
- Maintaining ionic comp. of extracellular fluid

34

Microglial cells

Not neurological cell origin
Part of the blood system
Become amoid when there is trouble
Tons of them

35

Efferent peripheral Nerve axons

Carry signals FROM CNS

36

Afferent PNS axons

Carry signals to CNS

37

PNS nerves consist of

Cervical plexus
Branchial plexus
Intercostal nerves
lumbar plexus
sacral plexus
Cranial nerves

38

Interneurons

Neither afferent or efferent
Found in CNS

39

Reflexes can either by

Somatic or Visceral

40

SOmatic reflexes

Effector nerves --> skeletal muscles

41

Visceral reflexes

Effector nerves --> smooth muscle, cardiac muscles and glands

42

Define:

myelin

Fat-like insulating sheath
Made by glial cells
surrounds the axons of neurons
Dramatically increases the speed of the action potential propagation.

43

How many pairs of external brain lobes are there on the surface of the human brain?


Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe

44

Enteric Nervous System

Lots of neurons
Gastrointestinal and biliary tracts and parncreas
Can work without connections to the CNS

45

What three structures are considered part of the brainstem?


The medulla oblongata
The pons
The midbrain

46

What three vesicles does the brain develop from

Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain

47

What does the forebrain differentiate into

Telenoephalic vesicles
Diacephalon
Optic vesicles

48

What does the telenoephalic vesicles develop into

Cerbal hemispheres

49

What do the optic vesicles develop into

Optic cups --> retina

50

Describe the function of:

the medulla oblongata of the brain

regulates basics life functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, as well as controls reflexes such as swallowing, sneezing, and vomiting.

51

Describe the function of:

the pons of the brain

major relay station between the forebrain and the cerebellum, and controls body functions, including respiration and sleep.

52

Describe the function of:

the midbrain of the brain

esponsible for many different functions including motor control, vision, hearing, temperature regulation, and alertness

53

Describe the function of:

the spinal cord

relay sensory information from the body up to the brain, and transmit motor information from the brain to the muscles of the body

54

Describe the layout of the spinal cord

Central grey matter
Surrounded by white matter tracts

55

Cerebral penducles

Structure that joins the brain stem to the cerebellum

56

Diancephalon

Composed of the thalamus and the hypothalamus

57

Hypothalamus

Endocrine functions
Engenders the mental state and behavioral patters of homeostatic drive

58

Describe the function of:

The central sulcus

Motor areas

59

Describe the function of:

The frontal lobe

reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving

60

Describe the function of:

The parietal lobe

movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli

61

Describe the function of:

The occipital lobe

Visual processing

62

Describe the function of:

The cerebrum

Conscious perception
Voluntary movement
Perception
Thought
Language

63

Describe the structure of:

The cerebrum

2 hemispheres divided by longitudinal fissure in the middle
Grey matter outside
White matter inside

64

Describe the function of the:

Temporal lobe

perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech

65

Describe the Thalamus

gray matter
"Command center" of the brain
Processes and relays sensory information

66

Describe the function of the CFS

cushions and protects the brain

67

What is the difference between a gyrus and a sulcus

A gyrus is a bump in the brain, a sulcus is a groove

68

Before 3 weeks the embryo does not have an anus or a mouth, instead it has pits called

Stomadeum = oral pit
Prctodeum = anus pit

69

The proctodeum is sealed by the

Cloacal membrane

70

The cloacal membrane is comprised of what tissues

Ecto and endo

71

Allantosis

Branch of the gut that forms during the formation of the anus

72

Name of the muscle of the heart

Myocardium

73

Myocardium arises from which germ layer

Lateral mesoderm

74

By which day does the embryo have blood vessels

Day 17

75

By which day does the embryo have blood cells

Day 18

76

By which day is the heart pumping

Day 22

77

By which day is the heart circulating

24

79

The structure that divides the ventricles and atria

Septa

80

What is the primary function of the post central gyrus

principal somatic (of the body) sensory area. It is the end-point of sensory information from the skin (for touch, pain, pressure and temperature sensation) and from the spindle organs in the joints (for position sense)

81

Decussate

passage of motor fibers from the brain to medulla spinalis and medulla oblongata

82

Tracts are always white or grey matter

White

83

Horns are always white or grey matter

Grey

84

Columns are always white or grey matter

Either

85

How many cervical spinal nerves are there

8 pairs

86

How many thoracic spinal nerves are there

12 pairs

87

How many lumbar spinal nerves are there

5 Lumbar pairs

88

How many cranial nerves are there

12 pairs

89

Somatosensory neuron

Unipolar neuron

90

Motor neuron

Multipolar neuron

91

What is the direction of electrical conduction in a neuron

From dendrite --> axon

92

how does communication between neurons occur

Synapses

93

Difference between a dermatome and a mytome

Both originate from somites
Myatome --> muscle that is inervated from a segment
Dermatome --> skin segment

94

What is the sympathetic trunk

paired bundle of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx.

95

Where do parasympathetic nerves come from

arise from the central nervous system