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Flashcards in The Cell Deck (27):
1

What two organelles are in eukaryotic cells, but not in prokaryotic cells?

1. Membrane-bound organelles in cytosol
2. Nucleus

2

Because there is no nucleus in prokaryotic cells, where is DNA stored?

Nucleoid

3

Three details corresponding with eukaryotic cells:

Membrane enclosed nucleus contains chromosomes
Many membrane-bound organelles are found in cytoplasm
Much larger than prokaryotes

4

What is the plasma membrane made up of?

Phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates

5

Flagellum

Locomotion organelle, composed of membrane-enclosed microtubules

6

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Smooth: synthesis of LIPIDS, metabolism of carbohydrates, and detoxification of drugs and poisons

Rough: is covered in ribosomes. These are associated with PROTEIN synthesis.

7

Nuclear envelope

Double membrane enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores, contiguous with ER

8

Nucleolus

Non-membranous organelle involved in production of ribosomes

9

Chromatin

Located with in the nucleus; material consisting of DNA and proteins

10

Ribosomes

Non-membranous organelles that make proteins

11

Golgi apparatus

Organelle active in synthesis, modification of products from ER, sorting, and secretion of cell products (exporting through vesicles which bud off)
cis face-receives
trans face-ships

12

Lysosome

Digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed

13

Mitochondrion

Organelle where cellular respiration occurs most ATP is generated

14

Peroxisome

Organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; destroys hydrogen peroxide

15

Microvilli

Projections that increase the cells surface area

16

Cytoskeleton

Reinforces sells shape, functions in cell movement; components are made of protein

17

Microtubules

Made of the protein tubulin; the largest of skeleton fibers. Shape and support the cell and serve as tracks with which organelles equipped with motor proteins can move. Also separate chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. Structural components of cilia and flagella

18

Microfilaments

Composed of the protein actin. Functions in smaller scale support. When coupled with myosin, can be involved with movement.

19

Intermediate filaments

Slightly larger than Microfilaments, but smaller than microtubules. More permanent fixtures in the cell, where importance in maintaining the shape of cell and fixing positions of certain organelles.

20

Centrosome

Region where the cells microtubules are initiated. Contains a pair of centrioles in animal cells

21

What organelles are in animal cells but not plant cells?

Lysosomes
Centrioles
Flagella

22

Chloroplast

Photosynthetic organelle; converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules

23

Plasmodesmata

Channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells

24

Cell wall

Outer layer that maintains cell shape and protects cell from mechanical damage; made of cellulose, other polysaccharides, and protein

25

Central vacuole

Storage, breakdown of waste products, hydrolysis of macromolecules; enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth

26

Tonoplast

Membrane enclosing the central vacuole

27

What organelles are in plant cells but not animal cells?

Chloroplasts
Central vacuole and tonoplast
Cell wall
Plasmodesmata