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Flashcards in The Cell Deck (35):
1

Cell Theory

- All living things are composed of cells
- Cells are the basic unit of all organisms
- All cells arise from preexisting cells

2

Nucleus

Contains chromosomes (DNA) wrapped with special proteins (his tones) into a chromatin network

3

Nucleolus

Inside nucleus in region that does not divide, synthesise components of ribosomes

4

Ribosomes

Site of protein synthesis

5

End plastic reticulum

System of membrane channels that transverse the cytoplasm

6

Rough ER

Site of protein synthesis & transport throughout cytoplasm

7

Smooth ER

Synthesise steroid hormones & other lipids, connects rough ER to Golgi apparatus, detoxifies the cell, carbohydrate metabolism

8

Golgi apparatus

Modify, store, & package substance produced in rough ER

9

Lysosomes

Site of intracellular digestion

10

Mitochondrion

Site of cellular respiration, contain their own DNA & can self replicate

11

Vacuoles

Store substances for cell

12

Vesicles

Small vacuoles

13

Plastids

3 types:
1) chloroplast - carry out photosynthesis, own DNA & can self-r.
2) leucoplasts - colourless, store starch, roots of turnips
3) chromoplasts - store carotenoid pigments

14

Cytoskeleton

Complex network of protein filaments, throughout cytoplasm - gives cell its shape & enables movement
2 types:
1) microtubules - hollow tubes that make up cilia, flagella, spindle fib.
2) microfilaments - help support cell, enable movement: skeletal muscles to contract, etc.

15

Centrioles & centrosomes

Outside nuclear membrane, organise spindle fibers required for cell division

16

Cilia & Flagella

Both made of microtubules
Cilia = short & Flagella = long
Move liquid past surface of cell

17

Cytoplasm

Region between nucleus & plasma membrane

18

Cytosol

Semiliquid portion of cytoplasm

19

Cell or Plasma Membrane

A selectively permeable membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell

20

Selectively permeable

Finish

21

Solvent

Substance that does dissolving

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Solute

Substance that dissolves

23

Hypertonic

Having greater concentration of solute than another solution

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Hypotonic

Having lower concentration of solute than another solution

25

Isotonic

2 solutions containing equal concentration of solute

26

Passive transport

Movement of molecules down a concentration gradient
Never requires energy

27

Simple diffusion

Movement of particles from higher concentration to lower concentration

28

Facilitated diffusion

Relies on special protein membrane channels to assist in transporting specific substances across a membrane

29

Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a membrane
Water flows down a gradient toward a region with high solute concentration

30

Active transport

Movement of molecules against a gradient
Requires energy

31

Exocytosis

Active release of molecules from a cell

32

Endocytosis

Process by which cells take in various molecules & particles by forming new vesicles made form plasma membrane, 3 types:

33

Pinocytosis

Type of endocytosis
uptake of large, dissolved molecules
Cell drinking

34

Phagocytosis

Type of endocytosis
engulfing of large particles/small organisms by pseudopods

35

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Types of endocytosis
enables cell to take up large quantities of specific substances