The cell cycle Flashcards Preview

Chapter 6 Cell Division > The cell cycle > Flashcards

Flashcards in The cell cycle Deck (16):
1

What is the cell cycle?

-Highly ordered sequence of events that take place in a cell, resulting in cell division and formation of two identical daughter cells.

2

What are the two main phases of the cell cycle?

-Interphase.
-Mitotic.

3

What is interphase?

-Long periods of growth and normal working separate divisions.
-E.g. produces enzymes or hormones, and actively prepares for cell division.

4

What happens during interphase?

-DNA is replicated and checked for errors in nucleus.
-Protein synthesis occurs.
-Mitochondria grow and divide.
-Chloroplasts grow and divide.
-Normal metabolic processes occur.

5

What are the three stages of interphase?

-G1 phase.
-Synthesis phase.
-G2 phase.

6

What happens in the G1 phase?

-First growth phase.
-Proteins from which organelles are synthesised are produced and organelles replicated.
-Cell increases in size.

7

What happens in the synthesis phase?

-DNA is replicated in nucleus.

8

What happens in the G2 phase?

-Second growth phase.
-Cell size continues to increase.
-Energy stores are increased and duplicated DNA checked for errors.

9

What is the mitotic phase?

-Period of cell division.
-Involves mitosis and cytokinesis.

10

What is mitosis?

-Nucleus is divided

11

What is cytokinesis?

-Cytoplasm divides and two cells are produced.

12

What is the Go phase?

-When the cell leaves the cycle either temporarily or permanently due to:
-Differentiation- a cell that becomes specialised is no longer to divide.
-DNA damaged- cell is no longer able to divide.
-Too many body cells- too many cells can causes diseases like cancer.

13

What are checkpoints?

-Control mechanisms of the cell cycle.
-Monitor and verify whether each process has been accurate.

14

What is the G1 checkpoint?

-At the end of G1 and before entry to S phase.
-If cell satisfies requirements then it triggers DNA replication if not then enters Go.

15

What is the G2 checkpoint?

-At the end of G2 and before start of mitotic phase.
-Has to check whether DNA has been replicated without error, if it has then signals beginning of mitosis.

16

What is the spindle assembly checkpoint?

-Checkpoint in mitosis where all chromosomes should be attached to spindles and aligned.