The Cell Cycle And Cellular Adaptations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Cell Cycle And Cellular Adaptations Deck (24):
1

What are the different stages of the cell cycle and their checkpoints?

G1–> synthesis phase—> G2–> mitosis—> G1

G1 checkpoint- is the cell big enough to divide? Is the environment favourable? Is DNA damaged?

G2 checkpoint?- is all DNA replicated? Is the cell big enough?

2

What are CDK proteins?

They allow the cell to progress from one stage to the next
They become active by binding to cyclin proteins

3

What is RB protein?

A tumour suppressor protein which prevents excessive mitosis

4

Why is hyperplasia?

Increased cell divisions to increase tissue size by an increase in cell number

5

Which tissues can undergo hyperplasia?

Labile or stable tissues

6

What is a physiological example of hyperplasia?

Proliferation of the endometrium under influence of oestrogen

7

What is a pathological example of hyperplasia?

Eczema
Goitre

8

What is hypertrophy?

An increase in tissue or organ size due to increased cell size

9

Which tissues can undergo hypertrophy

Labile, stable and especially permanent tissues

10

What is a physiological example of hypertrophy?

Skeletal muscle, pregnant uterus

11

What is a pathological example of hypertrophy?

Right ventricular hypertrophy

12

What is compensatory hyperplasia?

The increase in size of an organ or tissue to compensate for a lack of function in the body

13

What is atrophy?

Shrinkage of an organ or tissue due to an acquired decrease in size/number of cells

14

What is a physiological example of atrophy?

Ovarian atrophy in post menopausal women

15

What is a pathological example of atrophy?

Muscle atrophy with disuse/dennervation/ inadequate blood supply

16

What is metaplasia?

Reversible change of one differentiated cell type to another

17

Why does metaplasia occur?

Substitution of cells that sensitive to stress by cell types better able to withstand the adverse environment

18

What are some example of metaplasia?

Barretts oesophagus- stratified squamous to glandular epithelium

Bronchial pseudostratified epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium due to cigarette smoke

19

What is reconstitution?

Replacement of a lost part of the body eg angiogenesis

20

What is aplasia?

Failure of a specific tissue or organ to develop

21

What is involution?

Programmed shrinkage of an organ. Eg uterus after childbirth, thymus in early life, pro and mesonephros

22

What is hypoplasia?

Underdevelopment of a tissue. Eg renal, breast, testicles in klinefelters syndrome

23

What is atresia?

No orifice. Eg congenital imperforation of anus, vagina, small bowel

24

What is dysplasia?

Abnormal maturation of cells within a tissue. Potentially reversible but often precancerous