The Cell Pt 2. Eukaryotic cells Flashcards Preview

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Cytoplasm

Fluid internal environment of the cell

1

Cytosol

Water & Solutes

2

Plasma membrane

External boundary of the cell.

3

Nucleus

Where the genetic blueprint is contained.
double membrane bound
2 layers of the membrane.

4

Nuclear pores

pores that allow for controlled interaction w/ the nuclear material.
little tunnels.

5

Nucleolus

center of the nucleus
ribosome production begins

6

Chromosome/s

Large groupings of genes.
-linear

7

Mitochondria

Energy production site for a cell
multiple mitochondria per cell
double membrane organelle bound
key player in the self distruct mechanism

8

What are some unique features of the mitochondria?

Contains its own DNA
partial genome
still relies on the nucleus for some infromation
circular chromosome
capable of replicating independently from the rest of the cell
you inherit all of your mitochondria from your mother

9

Ribosomes

protein production machines
no membrane
seen in both prokaryotes & eukaryotes
multiple ribosomes per cell
some are free in the cytosol
some are bound to the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

10

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

proof reading/quality controlling proteins modifying proteins synthesizing hormones steroids.
membrane bound
continuos w/ the nuclear membrane

11

2 forms of Endoplasmic Reticulum

1. Smooth ER - Has no ribosomes attached hormone & steroid synthesis

2. Rough ER - Has ribosomes attached, protein modification & quality control.

*Most of the cellular calcium ions are locked away in the ER

12

Golgi Apparatus

Shipping & receiving center for the cell
membrane bound
proteins can undergo additional modifications here

13

Vesicles

Tiny membrane bound shipping containers
from the cell surface to the Golgi
in & out of the cell

14

2 types of specialized vesicles are

lysosomes
peroxisomes

15

Lysosomes

Membrane bound vesicles containing digestive chemicals.
break cells or macromolecules down into simple components.
if a lysosome were to break in a cell it would start to digest a cell

16

Peroxisomes

membrane bound vesicles contain ROS reactive oxigen species.
charged o2 molecules that break chemical bonds
since they cant release their contents into the cell they need a different strategy.

17

Macrophages

Cells located in our innate immune system
(nick name is big eaters)
job is to eat pathogens, diseased cells or debris.
packed Full of Lysosomes.
Engulf their target. (remember video)

18

Frustrated Phagocytosis

When they can not engulf something they may resort to throwing up on it.

19

Cytoskeleton

Scaffolding & transport for the cell

20

Microtubules

Hold organelles in place. Allow materials to move along them through the cell.

21

Actin

Scaffolding protein
can be quickly rearranged to change the shape of the cell
responds to environmental stimuli.

22

Apoptosis

Pre programed cell death
self distrust mechanism

23

Initiation

Stimulus can come from within or from other cells

24

Control

Cascade of events to start the process
turn on capases
apoptotic enzymes

not a simple on/off
Idea is the cell will destroy itself from the inside out w/ no collateral damage.

25

Protesome

Structure to destroy proteins & frees the amino acids to be used elsewhere.
offshoot of the er
if a protein is okay it goes one way
if its faulty it will go another way
(cup & lid structure)

26

Prions

Misfolded proteins that cause other proteins to misfold.
forms plaques that destroy nervous tissue

27

What are the 2 ways you can acquire prions?

1. Inherited - rare disorder
2. Acquired - Ingesting infected tissue

28

What are the two types of Cellular Respiration?

1. Organismal Respiration - Breathing gas exchange
2. Cellular Respiration - Conversion of sugar into ATP

29

Energy Currency

Exchange of some materiel for goods or services
exchange of ATP to carry out a function