Flashcards in The Cell Pt 2. Eukaryotic cells Deck (32)
Fluid internal environment of the cell
Water & Solutes
External boundary of the cell.
Where the genetic blueprint is contained.
double membrane bound
2 layers of the membrane.
pores that allow for controlled interaction w/ the nuclear material.
center of the nucleus
ribosome production begins
Large groupings of genes.
Energy production site for a cell
multiple mitochondria per cell
double membrane organelle bound
key player in the self distruct mechanism
What are some unique features of the mitochondria?
Contains its own DNA
still relies on the nucleus for some infromation
capable of replicating independently from the rest of the cell
you inherit all of your mitochondria from your mother
protein production machines
seen in both prokaryotes & eukaryotes
multiple ribosomes per cell
some are free in the cytosol
some are bound to the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
proof reading/quality controlling proteins modifying proteins synthesizing hormones steroids.
continuos w/ the nuclear membrane
2 forms of Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. Smooth ER - Has no ribosomes attached hormone & steroid synthesis
2. Rough ER - Has ribosomes attached, protein modification & quality control.
*Most of the cellular calcium ions are locked away in the ER
Shipping & receiving center for the cell
proteins can undergo additional modifications here
Tiny membrane bound shipping containers
from the cell surface to the Golgi
in & out of the cell
2 types of specialized vesicles are
Membrane bound vesicles containing digestive chemicals.
break cells or macromolecules down into simple components.
if a lysosome were to break in a cell it would start to digest a cell
membrane bound vesicles contain ROS reactive oxigen species.
charged o2 molecules that break chemical bonds
since they cant release their contents into the cell they need a different strategy.
Cells located in our innate immune system
(nick name is big eaters)
job is to eat pathogens, diseased cells or debris.
packed Full of Lysosomes.
Engulf their target. (remember video)
When they can not engulf something they may resort to throwing up on it.
Scaffolding & transport for the cell
Hold organelles in place. Allow materials to move along them through the cell.
can be quickly rearranged to change the shape of the cell
responds to environmental stimuli.
Pre programed cell death
self distrust mechanism
Stimulus can come from within or from other cells
Cascade of events to start the process
turn on capases
not a simple on/off
Idea is the cell will destroy itself from the inside out w/ no collateral damage.
Structure to destroy proteins & frees the amino acids to be used elsewhere.
offshoot of the er
if a protein is okay it goes one way
if its faulty it will go another way
(cup & lid structure)
Misfolded proteins that cause other proteins to misfold.
forms plaques that destroy nervous tissue
What are the 2 ways you can acquire prions?
1. Inherited - rare disorder
2. Acquired - Ingesting infected tissue
What are the two types of Cellular Respiration?
1. Organismal Respiration - Breathing gas exchange
2. Cellular Respiration - Conversion of sugar into ATP