The Changing Economic World: Economy Of The UK Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Changing Economic World: Economy Of The UK Deck (41):

What is de-industrialisation?

The decline in secondary employment and the subsequent growth in tertiary and quaternary employment


Why has de-industrialisation occurred in the UK?

•A global shift in manufacturing to NEEs, where wages are lower, working hours are longer and trade unions are sometimes banned

•An increase in the number of machines used to carry out work (mechanisation)


What is a post-industrial economy?

A time when traditional industries have declined and new jobs have had to take their place


Explain the ADVANTAGES of the UK move in the tertiary sector (post-industrial economy)

-Economic growth (mainly due to more global trade)

-Migration (migrants fill jobs where we have a shortage of skilled workers)

-Foreign investment (companies invest in UK, bringing new ideas, technology and jobs)

-High value production (workers are better paid and UK earns more money)


Explain the DISADVANTAGES of the UK move in the tertiary sector (post-industrial economy)

-Less manufacturing (more imports of goods, fewer goods are produced in UK, factories close and jobs lost)

-Outsourcing jobs (jobs that were done in UK can now be done elsewhere, loss of jobs or lower wages for those still working in UK)

-Inequality (gap between the low paid unskilled work and high paid skilled work is increasing, hard for low skilled workers to negotiate due to jobs being outsourced)



The growth and spread of ideas around the world


Science park

A group of scientific and technical knowledge-based businesses located on a single site


Business park

An area of land occupied by a cluster of businesses


Benefits of the location of Cambridge Science Park

•Near 4 London airports (cheaper to receive and send things)

•Surrounded by motorways and railways (lots of visitors)

•On green field, edge of Cambridge city (room for expansion)

•Close to Trinity College (jobs for skilled graduates)

•Just 50miles from London (near UK's economic hub)


Benefits of Cambridge Science Park having agglomerated economies

Joined venture between lots of different businesses within an area

•they share ideas
•attracts workers in different industries
•all workers are highly skilled and get to choose where they work



Meeting the needs of the present without damaging the ability of future generations to live a good life


Why is Cambridge Science Park SUSTAINABLE?

•132 cycle parking spaces

•9 showers

•11% commuters car share

•Energy efficient lightbulbs used both inside and out


Why is Cambridge Science Park UNSUSTAINABLE?

•Built on greenfield site, loss of ecosystems and farmland

•Site only offers highly skilled jobs

•3800 workers travelling to and from it everyday lead to massive traffic congestion and increased air pollution from cars


ADVANTAGES of Torr Quarry

•Over 100 people employed there

•TQ contributes over £15million toward local economy per year

•TQ is a nationally important source of construction materials


How is Torr Quarry SUSTAINABLE?

•Characteristic limestone features created to make landscape look natural

•Quarry being restored to create wildlife lakes and a water supply

•Regular monitoring of noise, vibration, dust, water quality

•3/4 output transported by rail transport-minimises impact on local roads and villages


How is quarrying UNSUSTAINABLE?

•Huge scars in rural landscape, ruined for local people (less tourists and money)

•Locals suffer noise, dust, light pollution

•Machines send CO2 into atmosphere (smog, illness, global warming)

•Deforestation (biodiversity reduced-affects food chain, no gas exchange)

•Loss of rural space


How has the population in South Cambridgeshire changed?

•Pop. is increasing due to migration in the area from Cambridge, other parts of the UK and Eastern Europe

•Proportion of people in SC aged 65 or over is growing


What are the SOCIAL impacts of population growth in South Cambridgeshire?

•Commuters continue to use services in the places where they work

•80% car ownership is increasing traffic on narrow country roads and reducing demand for public transport

•Young people cannot afford the high cost of houses and move away


What are the ECONOMIC impacts of population growth in South Cambridgeshire?

•Reduction in agricultural employment

•Lack of affordable housing

•High petrol prices


How has the population in the Outer Hebrides changed?

•Overall decline of more than 50% since 1901

•Younger people moving away in search of better jobs and universities


What are the SOCIAL impacts of population decline in the Outer Hebrides?

•No. of school children expected to fall over the next few years - may result in school closures

•Fewer people of working age livng in the Outer Hebrides

•Increasingly ageing population with fewer young people to support them - care issues in the future


What are the ECONOMIC impacts of population decline in the Outer Hebrides?

•Farming - limited amount of hours for workers

•Fishing - less fishing boats registered and development of fish farming limited due to environmental concerns

•Tourism - current infrastructure unable to support scale of tourism needed for alternative source of income


Transport infrastructure - road improvements

•2014 gov announced £15 billion 'Road Investment Strategy.'

•Aim: to increase capacity and improve condition of UK roads

•Will create thousands of construction jobs and boost local and regional economies


Road improvements - South-west 'super highway'

•Traffic flow on main route to the south-west can be 'stop-start’

•At peak times, the road can become heavily congested

•£2 billion road-widening project will create hundreds of construction jobs

•Scheme will involve digging a 3km tunnel beneath Stonehenge


Transport infrastructure - Railway improvements

•Electrification of the Trans-Pennine Express Railway between Manchester and York by 2020 will reduce journey times


Railway improvements - HS2

•£50 billion plan for a new high speed rail line to connect London, Birmingham, Sheffield, Leeds and Manchester

•May be extended to Newcastle and into Scotland

•Scheme due for completion in 2033


Arguments for HS2

•Could grow industries in the north

•Will create 100,000 jobs

•Will increase the UK's GDP

•Will reduce transport costs


Arguments against HS2

•People's properties will be destroyed and rural landscape will be ruined

•Very expensive and cost will increase when built

•Money could be used to boost businesses in other ways


Port improvements - Liverpool2

•£300 million project to construct a new container terminal at the Port of Liverpool

•Will double the port's capacity to over 1.5 million containers a year

•Will create thousands of jobs, boost economy of the north-west and reduce the amount of traffic on the roads


Transport infrastructure - Airport improvements

Opportunities for expanding Heathrow Airport

•Connect more British exporters to global markets

•70,000 new jobs

•40 new destinations

•Economic boost

•New green spaces

•Increase apprenticeships in airport


Transport infrastructure - Airport improvements

Problems for expanding Heathrow Airport

•750 homes destroyed

•Increased CO2 emissions

•Noise and pollution

•Taxpayer contribution is very expensive


Why is there a north-south divide in the UK?

•The decline of heavy industry has had a greater negative impact on the north

•The post-industrial economy has benefitted the south more

•This has led to both social and economic indicators being better in the south of the UK than the north


How can we reduce the north-south divide in the UK?

The Northern Powerhouse

•Gov.’s plan to reduce the inequality between the north and south

•Attracting investment into the north

•Improving transport links between northern cities

•Has been criticised for being more of a concept than an actual plan


How can we reduce the north-south divide in the UK?

Devolving powers to local government

•Giving local governments more power to allow them to use money on schemes they feel will best benefit the local community.


The UK in the wider world: TRADE

•The UK's most important trading links are with the EU.

•The USA is an important historic trading partner, with a recent growth in trade with China.

•Largest export destination: Germany.

•Largest import destination: China.


The UK in the wider world: CULTURE

•The UK's strongest creative industries mean that UK culture is exported worldwide.

•Television is one of the UK's most successful media exports.


The UK in the wider world: TRANSPORT

•London Heathrow - one of the busiest airports in the world - provides links to countries around the world.

•Channel Tunnel - providing a route from the UK to Europe.


The UK in the wider world: COMMUNICATION

•99% of all internet traffic passes along a network of submarine high-power cables.

•The UK is a focus for these submarine cables within connections concentrated between the UK and the USA.

•Arctic Fibre - first cables between London and Tokoyo, linking Europe and Asia.


The UK's economic and political links: REMAIN with the EU

-Low prices of goods.

-Citizens are free to move from one member country to another.

-More jobs are generated.

-Workers are protected.


The UK's economic and political links: LEAVE the EU

-Not all policies are efficient.


-The 'single currency' poses a great problem.

-It is costly to be a member of the EU.


What is the commonwealth?

•A group of 53 countries most of which were once British colonies which exists to improve the well being of everyone in Commonwealth countries.

•2014 Glasgow hosted Commonwealth Games:

+contributed £750 million to Scottish economy; opportunity to redevelop derelict areas; Glasgow became globalised.

-increased development gap; areas bulldozed and not rebuilt.