The chemistry of life Flashcards Preview

Gd 10 - Life Sciences 2017 > The chemistry of life > Flashcards

Flashcards in The chemistry of life Deck (32):
1

Atoms

Smallest units of matter

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Molecules

Chemicals made up of atoms held together by bonds

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Compound

Chemical substances made of two or more elements

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Inorganic substances

Chemicals made by natural geophysical processes

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Organic substances

Chemicals derived through chemical reactions in living organisms They are large molecules They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen as well as other elements

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An energy source compound made by plants

starch / glucose/ carbohydrates

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Example inorganic compounds made by organisms

Carbon dioxide Oxygen Water

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Metabolism

The chemical processes in organisms in order to maintain life

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Uses of water in organisms

Dissolve substances Transport substances A medium in which chemical reactions occur Control temperature Support and structure Reproduction

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Mineral elements

Inorganic compounds Found in the environment as salts

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Trace or micro mineral elements

Minerals needed in small quantities by an organism

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Macro mineral elements

Minerals needed in large quantities by an organism

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How animals obtain mineral elements

Food and water consumed as part of their diet (consumers)

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How plants obtain mineral elements

Taken up from the soil by the roots dissolved in water

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Sodium function in humans

Nerve impulse transmission water regulation

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Sodium deficiency in humans

coma seizures nerve problems swelling decreased muscle function.

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Potassium function in humans

Nerve impulse transmission water regulation

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Potassium deficiency in humans

fatigue muscle weakness and cramps slow reflexes irregular heartbeat mood changes dry skin and acne increased urination

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Calcium function in humans

Bone strength Muscle function

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Calcium deficiency in humans

Osteoporosis irregular heartbeat muscle spasms

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Phosphorus function in humans

bone strength energy production phospholipid structure in cell membranes element in DNA and RNA

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Phosphorus deficiency in humans

Muscle dysfunction nerve dysfunction Osteoporosis

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Iron function in humans

Produces haemoglobin Part of enzyme function Energy production

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Iron deficiency in humans

Anaemia Lethargy

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Iodine function in humans

Producing the hormone thyroxine Maintaining metabolism

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Iodine deficiency in humans

Hypothyroidism Goitre Cretinism and mental retardation Breast and stomach cancer

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Mineral elements needed by plants

Nitrogen (N) as nitrates Phosphorus (P) as phosphates Potassium (K) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sulphur (S) Iron (Fe)

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The seven characteristics of life

Nutrition Response to stimuli Growth Reproduction Respiration Excretion Movement

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Hierarchy of organization in an organism

Cell Tissue Organ System

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Polymers

A substance made up of many smaller similar sub-units Sub units called monomers

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Monomer of carbohydrates

Saccharides Ring shaped units

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Structure of sugars

Mono- or disaccharides