The Cold War Era Flashcards Preview

APUSH > The Cold War Era > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Cold War Era Deck (79)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

USA and Soviets dislike and distrust each other.

Despite WWII alliance. They see each other as rivals

A

2
Q

America still wants to be a global superpower. They shape the worlds foreign affairs to their benefit

Soviets never want to be invaded again. They also want to spread communism

A

3
Q

The Cold War

A

to determine which nation’s ideals better sever humanity (in each country’s mind)

-US believes that Communism/Soviets want to expand

4
Q

Bretton Woods Agreement

A

creates global economic structures (ex. International Monetary Fund) to tie nations together through globalization and free trade

5
Q

United Nations

A

-founded post-WWII

-capture belief in idealism

-America dominated

-USA and SU in it

6
Q

Containment Doctrine by George Kennan

A

-argues the Soviets wants to expand until they receive pushback

-Truman adopts this as “Get Tough” America

7
Q

Truman Doctrine

A

America would support any country opposing the Soviet’s ‘expansion’ (Communism)

8
Q

Marshall Plan

A

-USA gives money to European nations to help rebuild their country after WW2

-so they don’t fall to communism

-Soviets and their allies reject US money

9
Q

During the Cold War, the US will support those with dictatorships as long as not communism

A

10
Q

Winston Churchill uses the term “Iron Curtain”

A

used to describe the European states who fell under Soviet Control

11
Q

Germany splits into East and West

A

East (Soviets)
West (USA)

both countries have different visions for Germany
-Soviets want it weak
-USA wants to make it strong

12
Q

1948-1949 Berlin Airlift

A

-Stalin tries to force the Allies out of Berlin

-US flew supplies and moved aircraft capable of dropping nuclear bombs to Europe

-Stalin backs down and ensures Germany will be divided for the remaining of the war

13
Q

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

A

a military alliance between US and European countries to deter Soviet expansion into Europe as response to the Berlin Airlift

14
Q

National Security Act 1947

A

modernized US military by

-centralizing the Department of Justice
-created the National Security Council
-created the CIA

15
Q

After Berlin, the two countries competed in a race to see who could make the biggest nuclear bombs

-1949 Soviets tested the first atomic bomb
-Truman orders development of the Hydrogen Bomb

A

16
Q

America has agreements with Japan and Philippines to keep control over the Pacific

A

17
Q

China in their open Civil War

A

Nationalists (led by Chiang Kai-Shek) and Communists (led by Mao Zedong)

-America supported the Nationalists
-but Communists are more popular, forced the Nationalists to Taiwan
-USA in horror as most popular nation falls to comunism

18
Q

next sign of Communist aggression: Korea splits

A

the Communism in the North and the Nationalists in the South

-Communism North invades the South sparking the Korean War
-N. Korea invades the South

19
Q

Korean War

A

-N. Korea invades South

-USA with United Nations send troops to S. Korea

-warned by China not to advance or China will
enter the war with N. Korea

-war drags on over disputes of POWs

-38th Parallel divides N. and S. Korea

20
Q

General Douglass MacArthur

A

-important in Korean War

-wants nukes to be used in fighting, fired by Truman

-still somehow seen as hero

21
Q

The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act/GI Bill (1944)

A

returning servicemen had the opportunity to go to college and buy houses

led to more skilled workforce and stable lives

22
Q

Truman’s goals post WW2

A

create his own New Deal, national health insurance, increase minimum wage, governmental commitment to maintaining full employment

BUT a renewed Republican Party and
Southern Democrats block these

23
Q

Truman advances Civil Rights

A

late 1940s-early 1950s
officially desegregates the US military

BUT Southern Democrats (still racist) block Truman’s more ambitious programs

24
Q

During Truman’s presidency, Republicans regained control in the House and Senate and they wanted to make change

A

….

25
Q

Republicans pass the 22nd Amendment

A

a president cannot serve more than two terms

26
Q

Republicans pass Taft-Hartley Act of 1947

A

restricts the power of labor unions

get a job, then you can join a union

27
Q

Truman promises “Fair Deal” to secure second term

A

national healthcare insurance, federal aid to
education, civil rights legislation, funds
for public housing, and a new farm
program

BUT plan fails because Southern Democrats, Republicans with fear of communism spreading in USA

28
Q

2nd Red Scare

A

belief that communist spies had infiltrated the
highest levels of American government and culture

29
Q

Loyalty Review Board

A

created by the Truman Administration to investigate suspected Communists

does not find any, but they find other “suspects” (LGBTQ) and use this as an excuses to go after them

30
Q

Smith Act

A

made it illegal for people to advocate or join organizations for the overthrow of the US government

-violation of freedom of speech

31
Q

McCarran Internal Security Act (1950)

A

-Congress made it unlawful to support an establishment of a totalitarian government (communism)

-restricted the employment and travel of those joining a communist front group

-authorized the creation of detention camps for subversives

32
Q

House of Representatives UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC)

A

investigated government officials, Hollywood, writers, and the Boy Scouts for suspected ties to
communism

it was more show trials than anything, but dangerous for those called before it

33
Q

After the Soviets developed the Atomic Bomb, Americans believed that Soviet Spies had stolen the information

A

,,,

34
Q

Joseph McCarthy (R)

A

-claimed he had a list of Soviet spies in the highest levels of American government

-he takes an active role in fighting the Soviets on American soil

-Republicans allowed this because it helped them gain in politics

35
Q

Army-McCarthy Hearings in 1954

A

downfall of McCarthy, seen as a bully

36
Q

Dwight D. Eisenhower or “IKE” (R)

A

-ant-communist

-first Republican president in 20 years

-balance budget while keeping the New Deal

-political leader in his party, country, and world

37
Q

IKE
-created the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW)

-named Oveta Culp Hobby head of department, first Republican woman named to a cabinet

A

///

38
Q

1956 Highway Way Act

A

created the interstate highway system

causes American economy booms and Ike is easily reelected in 1956

39
Q

taxes much higher during the time of Ike,

A
39
Q

taxes much higher during the time of Ike,

A
40
Q

taxes much higher during the time of Ike,

government charging more but giving out lots of money, SUCCESS

A

….

41
Q

Most of Ike’s attention was focused on the Cold War, he was against nuclear weaposn

A

….

42
Q

“Brinksmanship”

A

-believed by John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State

-America should push the Communist powers to
brink of war so they would back down to the threat of American nukes

-sold as tough and cost effective

-end of the world if used

43
Q

new countries emerged who would take center stage in global competition between US and Soviet Union

Ike used the CIA to make sure these countries were not communist

A

….

44
Q

French tried to regain land from Vietnam, (Ike supports French) they lost

but Vietnam was split and Cuba falls to communism, causing panic in USA

A

North- Communist

South- Americans

this plants the seeds for the Vietnam war

45
Q

Eisenhower Doctrine

A

US pledged economic and military aid to any Middle Eastern countries threatened by
communism

46
Q

OPEC forms in 1960

A

Middle Eastern countries are working together to leave the Soviets and US alone

later causes tension between US and middle eastern leaders

47
Q

“Spirit of Geneva”

A

-meeting between Ike (USA) and Khrushchev (Soviet)

-showed the two leaders could talk and work together diplomatically

48
Q

1956 Hungarian Revolt

A

US does not intervene as Soviets use tanks to put down a student revolt

-seen as a backstep from the Spirit of Geneva meeting

49
Q

Sputnik

A

Soviets send an object into space before the Americans

spurred the creation of NASA

50
Q

Second Berlin Crisis 1958

A

Khruschev threatens to “bury capitalism” and demands US pulls troops out of Berlin.

Ike invites Khruschev to US to discuss and peace is
preserved

51
Q

U-2 Incident 1960

A

US spy plane shot down over the Soviet Union
ends any chance at further negotiations with the Soviet Union

52
Q

Ike in his farewell address

A

warns of the “Military-Industrial
Complex”

the military had too much influence and the country had too much fear

the country needs to uphold its democratic values

53
Q

American elites believed that American history with little disagreement in its Consensus, African American Civil Rights proved this was a lie

A

54
Q

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

A

sought to fight segregation in the US Court system

-end goal was to overturn Plessy v Ferguson

55
Q

Brown v Board of Education

A

ruled that school segregation should end

56
Q

South response to Brown v Board of Education

A

maintain white supremacy

ignore the law, Southern Government, KKK

57
Q

murder of Emmet Till

A

outrages nation and they see what southern racism is like

58
Q

Montgomery Bus Boycott

A

led by MLK, Africans refuse to ride the bus for over a year

led the Supreme Court to rule that segregation laws are unconstitutional

59
Q

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

A

organized ministers and churches to help with Civil Rights struggle

60
Q

the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

A

organized students to participate in non-violent protests

61
Q

Kennedy as president

A

-impressive cabinet

-promised to aid education, federal support of healthcare, civil rights

-the Cold Ear distracts most of his domestic ideas

62
Q

1961 Bay of Pigs

A

JFK allows CIA to attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro and communism in Cuba

plan fails, critics question if JFK is too soft on communism

63
Q

Kennedy does nothing to stop the Berlin Wall being built, is he too soft?

A

….

64
Q

JFK sent for naval blockade of Cuba because soviets’ have nukes in russia

A

-the soviets back down

-soviets agree not to place nukes in cuba

-us would remove nukes from turkey in exchange

the closest the world has been to a nuclear war

65
Q

1957 Civil Rights Act

A

reestablishes a federal civil rights commission

66
Q

1960 Civil Rights Act

A

gives justice department more power to protest voting rigths

67
Q

DeJure discrimination

A

occurs via law (through Civil Rights Movement)

68
Q

DeFacto discrimination

A

occurs out of habit and custom (how do we counter this?)

69
Q

George Wallace governor of alabama

A

argued business owners should be able to serve who they want, victimize whites

“segregation forever”

70
Q

1961 Freedom Riders

A

white and black northerns travel via bus across the south to participate in voter registrations and sit-ins

71
Q

1963 MLK leads March to Washington

A

-peaceful march

-“I Have A Dream” criticizes government for not following the emancipation proclamation

72
Q

1964 Civil Rights Act

A

made segregation illegal in all public facilities and federal government had power to enforce desegregation

73
Q

1965 Voting Rights Act

A

ended literary tests and provided federal registers in areas Africans were kept from voting

74
Q

March to Montgomery

A

MLK leads march for voting rights, violet, draws national attention

75
Q

In the 1960s, the nation sees violence in two ways

A

-south is racist

-Africans cause violence and need less rights

76
Q

Malcolm X

A

a voice in Civil Rights Movement saying MLK is too accommodating to whites and they should use violence instead

77
Q

“Black Power”

A

attacks white society, MLK supports, less support by whites for MLK

78
Q

1960s watts riots

A

broadcasted, whites asked if they moved to quickly and became more against integration