Flashcards in The Description and Identification Process Deck (36):
What are the the physical factors that can influence an individual's perception of a person, place, or thing?
* Smell and Taste
* Point of View
* Other physical influences
How does vision effect our perception of things compared to hearing?
Events we see tend to take less time than those we hear
What's another term for Point of View?
What is Point of View?
The angle at which one views an object or event
What are Illusions?
A false perception based on observable facts that are incorrectly interpreted by a witness
What are other Physical Influences on how an individual perceives things?
What are the the psychological factors that can influence an individual's perception of a person, place, or thing?
* Group Pressure
* Tunnel Vision
* Intense feelings and attitudes
* Social psychological factors
* First impressions
* Previous experiences
* Cultural background
* Social role
* Perceptional distortions
What is Projection?
Projecting your own traits onto others which could in turn make their statement questionable
How can Cultural Background influence our perception?
We project our cultural sense of what is right, moral or virtuous onto another
How can Social Roles influence our perception?
Our views of others is based on where they are/or should be in the organizational chart
What are Perceptual Distortions?
Strong emotional states that lead to increased perceptual changes
What are the three major components that interact to affect the development of perception?
1. The observer
2. Events being observed
3. Ambient conditions
What are the effects of physical stress on the description and identification process?
* Adrenaline gives you a temporary boost of energy
* Lactic acid can cause fatigue
* Stress can activate the "fight or flight" reaction, saving your life
Adrenaline giving you a temporary boost of energy is an example of what type of stress?
Lactic acid causing fatigue is an example of what type of stress?
Stress activating your "fight or flight" reaction is an example of what type of stress?
Which type of stress effects your mind more, physical or psychological stress?
The raising of blood pressure, hindering the ability to remember things, is an example of what type of stress?
How an individual responds to the source of stress is because of the perception of the stimulus, or the stimulus itself?
It is always the perception of the stimulus rather than the stimulus itself that determines how an individual responds to the source of the stress.
The degree someone perceives something as difficult or dangerous is what type of stress?
What are the three types of stress?
What is Acute Stress?
* A condition that occurs in response to a terrifying or traumatic event that is sudden, novel, or unexpected, and of relatively short duration
* This is an "emergency" situation
* This stress significantly degrades performance due to its effects on the mind and body
* Causes impaired cognitive decision processing, confusion, distorted memory, and false memory
An emergency situation is what type of stress?
A condition that occurs in response to a terrifying or traumatic event that is sudden, novel, or unexpected, and of relatively short duration, is what type of stress?
What type of stress causes the most impaired cognitive decision processing, confusion, distorted memory, and false memory?
What are the two types of lineups?
What is a Simultaneous lineup?
When the witness views all people or photos at the same time
What is a Sequential lineup?
When the witness views the suspects or photos one at a time and would be asked to make a decision on each before being allowed to view the next suspect or photo
What is the minimum number of persons necessary for a physical lineup?
6, the suspect plus 5 other people
The suspect being presented in a group, who fit the same general description as given by the witness, occurs in what type of lineup?
Can law enforcement personel be used in a lineup?
Are lineup personnel allowed to talk during the lineup?
True or False: it is okay if the witness knows some of the people used in the lineup?
False, all participants should be unknown to the witness.
True or False: witnesses can view a lineup at the same time?
False, witnesses should be separated for viewing the lineup.
What is the minimum number of photographs necessary for a photo lineup?
6, the suspect plus 5 other people.