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Flashcards in The Era of the Great War Deck (80):

Why did so many scots enlist to fight

Pedro pressure from friends and family, boring job so this was a chance to leave their job,adventure chance to travel abroad to Belgium and France, patritotism pride in fighting for Britain, unemployment could now get a job and a regular wage, pals battalions the government promised men who were friends or colleagues that they could serve together in a regiment, men feared being pinned by a white feather if seen in the street by a women to represent cowardice


How were men recruited

Posters-cheap, easily produced in large numbers
Newspaper articles- encourage men to enlist
Recruitment offices- set up for men to go join up
Recruitment officers- visited factories, offices and sports club


Scottish infantryman kit

Kilt,socks,boots,pack- to carry spare socks, greatcoat and mess tins, entrenching tool- to dig trenches, puttes- to keep mud and water our of boots, ammunitation pouches rifle, bonnet with regimental badge


The western front

-The lineup the trenches finally reached from the Belgian North Sea Coast to the Swiss border
-soldiers dug holes to protect themselves from enemy bullets artillery
- at the battle of the mayor and British and French armies. The German in advance they forced them to pull back
-The Western front stretch the area in Northern France and Southern Belgium and was where most Scottish soldiers fought


Life in the trenches morning

Acta D break they were given in order to stand to this was for each soldier to be expected to stand on the trench and fire start with a rifle loaded and B are not fixed early in the morning it was most likely time for animated shall front line standdown was the least dangerous time most men had breakfast then some still stayed on guard


Life in the trenches daytime

Soldier spent part of their day filling sandbags repeat in tranches and faction supplies from up the line soldiers past time by trying to get some sleep writing letters home and clean in there rifle/kit


Daily routine timetable evening

In the early evening there was another period of stand to this was for soldiers to be expected to be stood on the fire step with their rifle loaded and bayonet fixed


Daily routine timetable night time

This was a period of great activity patrols crawled into no mans land to spy on enemy some soldiers repaired barbed wire in front of trenches others attempted the cut enemy barbed wire sometimes raiding parties occurs they attempted to catch prisoners from enemy trenches


What was food like in the trenches

3000000 field workers employed to cook and supply food
Daily the soldiers needed 3574 calories
At the start of the war soldiers required 10 ounces of meat however this reduces to 6ounces per day in 1916
3240948 tonnes of food were sent from Britain to France and Belgium during the First World War
The soldiers diet was mainly bully beef(canned corn beef) bread and biscuits (western front)
In winter 1916 dried ground turnips were used as a substitute for flour as flour was in short supply
Soldiers tried to make stale biscuits taste better by attempting to break them up adding anything possible usually onions,potatoes and sulatanas and boiling the mixture in a sandbag
The bread when received at the front line was always stale because it took up to 8 days to receive at the front line
Kitchen staff depended on local veg to make stew and soups they also used weeds such as nettles
Soldiers complained about the taste of the food as the battalions kitchen staff only had 2 large cats to cook with


Punishment for soldiers in the trenches

Drunkenness was most common
Disciplinary offence
While more serious included desertion, cowardice and a bonding your post


Messages from home

Twelve and a half million letters were sent to the western from weekly
4000 soldiers were employed by the army postal service by 1918
It took up to two to three days to arrive for soldiers
A government act was passed in 1914 for junior officers to read over and censor letters to not let their family member know how they were feeling or where they were many junior officers left the letters unread as they couldn't deal with it


What were military tactics used by general douglas haig

At the end of the war he changed his tactics to tanks,aircraft,radio and soldiers to attack
Battle tactics


Big push

A major attack on the enemy



The act of withdrawing to safety



Scouting a person sent out to gain info



Heavy guns designed to destroy enemy positions



Long periods of gunfire


No- mans land

The area between two opposing armies


Zero hour

Exact time a attack is launched



To move forward


Who was general Douglas haig

British army's leader of war effort 1915 until end of fighting 1918
Became a field Marshall 1917 ( highest rank) British army


Development of the tank

Tanks first used battle of the Somme first time ww1
First tank used couldn't cross trenches and often got stuck in mud needed 3 men and maximum speed of 3mph
476 tanks used at battle of Cambodia in 3 waves
Almost to successful at battle of Cambrian as the tank was moving to fast that British now had as not enough british troops to move into land they had gained


Advantages tank

Combined fire power with movement
Protected men across no mans land
Could cross shell holes and trenches
Could crush Barnes wire
Initially scared Germans
Improved mechanically by 1918


Disadvantages tank

Early tanks broke down regularly
Not enough spare parts
Very heavy and often got stuck in the mud
If stuck in no mans land could be hit with artillery fire
Germans put anti aircraft guns onto lorries and used them to fire armour piercing shells at tanks


Lee Enfield rifle advantages

Had a ten bullet magazine
It's rate of fire with well trained men was high
But of rifle has a space where cleaning material could be stored


Lee Enfield rifle disadvantages

Often got dirt and grit stuck in the firing mechanism which meant rifle wouldn't work properly
Keeping rifle clean was very important
Many men had to cover rifle with cloth in effort to keep rifle clean when not in battle


Vickers machine gun advantages

Could fire 450 bullets per minute
Bullets were 0.303 inches
It was deadly weapon according to many German casualties


Vickers machine gun disadvantages

Had to be held by 6men
Weighed 20kg
Bullets often missed targets
Had to be held on a tripod



Known as howitzers
Some of these guns could fire 900kg shells over a distance of 18km
Artillery fire injured far more soldiers than did machine guns and rifles
Shells churned up ground around frontline making movement almost impossible for men and equipment


Advantages of gas

Britain first used gas in September 1915
Chlorine gas first used by the Germans at the second battle of ypres in 1915
First gas attack was caused by 5000 cylinders being released against Canadian and British troops the gas drifted to no mans land which Allied soldiers took to surprise as the gas cause choking and many soldiers panicked and fled
Chlorine-greenish yellow had which formed an acid when it came into contact with moisture of the lungs causing fatal damage
Phosgene- also destroyed lungs was invisible and much more deadly than chlorine gas
Mastered the most dreaded gas used in war damage to explore skin causing big burn like blisters and blindness it also caused internal and external bleeding and was very painful


Disadvantages of gas

Before a gas masks were developed soldiers soaked o'clock would either you down and water and cover their mouth and nose to prevent the consumption of gas
When throwing gas mean it to throw it to the enemy the wind could blow meaning that the gas would end up going on your side
Gas mask soon developed



At Battle of the marne in 1914 a pilot spotted a gap between the advancing German armies and the British and French quickly pushed into it forcing the Germans to retreat
Reconnaissance was for spying on the enemy or scouting planes were flown over enemy lines to gather information about enemy placements
Fighter planes were fast manoeuverable and fitted with machine guns heavier planes were designed to carry bombs
By 1918 planes had been developed which could carry heavy bombs to attack Germany is capital of Berlin


Why was rationing introduced during World War I

Rationing was introduced to make sure that there was a fair distribution of food
Last man working on farms ment less food being produced
Last food in Britain due to large quantity of food needed to keep soldiers fighting on the Western front
Food shortages happened due to German you bought submarine camping with sunk merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain 500,000 tons of shipping had been sunk by 1917
Shortages meant large queues outside shops panic buying lead to more shortages
Voluntary scheme set up by the Ministry of food have not done enough to prevent food shortages
Food became very expensive and the government wanted to take control to make sure everyone was fed


Evaluate the usefulness question and what makes the writer useful or not

Someone who had firsthand experience i.e. soldier in the trenches
A historian will have studied a large amount of evidence/information
Newspaper report in the event of the time
Government politician involved in making decisions/
would have knowledge of the Issue
Written at the time the events are taking place so likely to be accurate description/explanation
Written many years later in his the bit when a lot of evidence would be available to study
The purpose of the source and to which should be explain or describe


Dora what military laws did they create

Banned from buying binoculars
No spreading of rumours about war
Take photos of military bases
Give bread to animals or poultry
Ring church bells
Use invisible ink when writing abroad


What was DORA

On eighth of August1914 the British government passed Dora
Under Dora the government has the power to change any laws that if that were necessary for the good of the country during the war
The government's main concern was to keep the country producing enough weapons and food to be able to fight in the war


What did Dora do for an alcohol LAw

Alcohol could only be sold between 12 noon and 2:30 PM and 6:30 PM and 9:30 PM
Pubs were forbidden to open on Sundays and you weren't allowed to buy a drink for anyone else
This was this was created as the government was concerned about the effect of drunkenness


What did DORA do for censorship

Censorship was introduced this was the start newspaper printing information which might be helpful to the enemy


What did your dad do about land use

Landowners has use much of their land for dear forest and grouse for shooting on the moors


Why did women want the vote

Women believed that the only week and unfurnished and society was for them to be treated as equal which meant having the same right vote as men


Who were the suffragists

They were known as National Union Of Women Suffrage Societies
They were known as the NUWSS
The leader was Millicent Fawcett
Zeroed letters petitions were founded in 1887 that leaflet and poster campaigns and peaceful demonstration help public meetings and published their own newspaper
They were non-violent campaigners for the right to vote


Who were at the suffragettes

The leader was Emmeline Pankhurst
They were known as WSPU
Women's social and political union
Militant/violent campaigners for the right to vote
Were founded in 1903
Green light purple give women votes
They sent a letter bombs they attacked them please they change themselves to railings they burnt down houses and buildings they broke window is the disrupted Parliament
Deeds not words


What were the roles of men and women in British society

In 1910 women to don't have a quality men want important difference with the right to vote in election by 1910 six men out of 10 could vote in general elections


Why could women not vote in national election

Many people including some women thought that women would be influenced by their husbands
Many people thought that women were too emotional to vote
It was a male dominated society they did not think women are equal to men
Dude in the 19th century people thought that woman's place was at home


What improvements in women's rights were in 1910

By 1900 women could vote in elections to school boards
First woman to be elected in Scotland for Paisley School board in 1873
Women could vote in local elections if they paid rate which was a sort of local tax
Women could divorce and still get access to their children
When women married they can keep their property and money until 1882 women had to give money and possessions to their husbands


Explain the women on fair treatment

Women were paid 40% less than men
Women were not paid the same wages as a man for the same job
Women had to give up their jobs when they married


Explain education for girls

Education for girls seem to be well established by 1900s
Since 1874 Scotland boys and girls had to go to primary school
By 1914 they had to stay at school until they were 14 years of age
Girls were treated differently from boys as they studied needlework cookery and laundry
19 10 K to invent was added this was to prepare girls for the role as homemakers
And university level women face even more problems they can only go to universities in 1889 of universities Scotland and give them access is mad hello some women to become doctors teachers and lawyers


Why did women want to vote

Many women believe they could and in fairness of society and be treated as equal human beings only if they have the right to vote women wanted to choose to rule the country and to make sure laws were passed to help women get a quality man


What happened in 1902

Glasgow immersive Scotland Association for women's suffrage he was formed
Join the NUWSS in October 1903
Similar organisations appeared in Dundee and Aberdeen
1909 all the CFG societies came together under the Scottish federalisation of women suffrage societies which itself was part of NUWSS


How did jailed suffragettes carry on their campaign in prison

They went on hunger strike


How did the government care for the jail suffragettes

The government worried as they have to look after every prisoner if one day the government we get bad publicity and WSU we get a good publicity
The government that with hunger strike by the leasing prisoners and capturing them and if that didn't work force fed
War dresses came in with a positive extricate and help them in place flat on back Dr Greece cheap and quick gag in place mostly close your eyes and please do hope to have no feelings with the pain when she was placed in those people that start to talk and it would be dry when you move had jerk mouth and Jasmine take together sometimes the key back up in the mouth is not able to get out it would be if you go to the noise noise repent and they were told to swallow again the operation was around 1 to 2 hours


Explain the cat and mouse act

The cat represented the government catching the woman woman where the mouse it was passed as it gave government bad press


What happened during rent strikes

In May 1913 south Hampton Glasgow large meetings how to support people who refuse to pay increase rents women against landlords making money
Protest organised efficiently and the woman accused of being unpatriotic landlord supported by employers as there are industrial production affected
LAw officers sent to evict tenants for not paying supporters of rent strikes made it impossible for officers to carry out evictions by end of 1915 25000 tenants had joined movement
17th November 1915 trial due to take place of 18 tenants who refused to pay increased rents huge meeting in George square Glasgow showed opposition to trial factory owners were warned when men went on unofficial stike to show support for people on trial


What did the government do about the rent strikes

Government response to a swift that restriction act rushed through Parliament close rents at prewar levels increase only allowed if improvements have been made to property victory for direct action
Peoples action in short-term Saab situation long-term consequences of red stripe with mainly more people came to take interest in politics


Pre World War One house

Lack light and ventilation
Unacceptable number of single Of ends knows as roomed houses
Half of population lived in houses with one or two rooms
Not enough standard sanitary facilities such as toilets


Post world war houses

Had large gardens
We're bigger had several bedrooms
Had inside toilets and bathrooms
Heat and light were inside houses


What was homes fit for heroes

Was promised by prime minister (David Lloyd George) he promised soldiers that when they returned from WW1 they would have reasonable homes to live in


What was the Addison act

Took place in 1919
Act resulted in many slums being demolished
They started to build council houses
But ran out of money so no more houses could be built. However the wealth act came along 1924
Able to build more council houses as they have gave councils money to build more houses.


What was the wealthy act 1924

Aloud 25000 more council houses to be built


Who did Scotland blame

The liberal government for the failure of not building enough houses due to their failure to deliver their promise


What were reserved occupation

Dock workers
Iron and steel workers
Coal miners
Railway workers
Shipyard workers
Utility workers -water, gas, electricity


How was agriculture effected

Less jobs as machines required less workers
Government financial help stopped in 1920 for farmers


How was textiles effected

India started to produce just leading to foreign competition
Orders stopped for jute as no more sandbags were being produced


How was steel making effected

Competition from other countries
Decline in orders for ships and railway engines meant less steel needed


How was shipbuilding effected

Orders stopped when war ended
Foreign shipyards were higher quality to have than Scottish ones


How was coal production effected

Wage cuts led to strikes of miners Scotland gained bad publicity led to lack of investment from other businesses
Tonnes of coal fell from 42.5 million tonnes to 16.8 million tonnes in 1926


How were railway engines effected

Production fell by 2 thirds at North British Company
Engineering work declined as companies amalagated(joined together)


Heavy industry benefits

Wartime boom in Scotland's industries led to large profits and rising demand for workers
More employment in shipyards
Greater need for homes and goods in Clydeside area as workers increased in area
Good wage


War time material benefits

Engineering firms benefited
Beardmores engineering firm employed up to 20000 men
Employment of ammunition production led to doubling of steel output 24000 men employed
Increase of North British Rubber Company ( gas masks, boots, sheets, waterproof coats)
Jute industry increase large profits (jute sacks for sandbags and nose bags for horses) higher wages men


Farming and fishing benefits

Shepherd got money doubled £2 a week for sheeps wool
Wages doubled for farmers as they made produce such as milk


What were main reasons for Scotlands decline in industry after the war

Heavy industry in Scotland was no longer in demand
New industries such as those making electrical goods, chemical engineering and car assembly were based on mass production and mass consumption
New industries were powered by electricity and could be built anywhere
Many new factories were based in central and southern England



Caused by dirty water
Symptoms were fever, vomiting, diarrhoea and stomach pains
The government put chloride of line into the water soldiers did not like the taste but this was how the government tried to prevent the disease


She'll shock

This condition is now known as post traumatic stress disorder
Symptoms anxiety,depression, limping and muscle contractions
Doctors believed at the time that it was caused by physical damage to the nerves by shell fire



Was called trench fever
It was a painful disease which began with sever leg pain, then high temp and fever
It could take men up to twelve weeks to recover from the disease when away from the trenches



The trenches were full of rats as they fed on dead soldiers and scavenged for food in spare mess tins
Rats invaded the dugout in trenches to look for food, crawl over soldiers faces whilst sleeping if soldiers had frostbite or trench foot rats would nibble away impact on soldiers
Rats carried a disease called wails disease which was spread by their urine it could lead to fever failure of the kidneys and thrived in the trenches


Trench foot

Symptoms numbness blisters skin turning red/ blue
The government sent whale oil to protect their feet so they had a Barrier which the water couldn't reach also to change their socks 3 times daily this was how the disease was prevented
The disease developed as they were living in the cold in wet and insanitary conditions also stood for hours in the water filled trenches developed trench foot


Describe the conditions Scots faced in the trenches

The trenches were often flooded/muddy
Soldiers have little protection from the weather/cold and winter
Constant strain of gunfire/explosions
Terrible smell in the trenches
Discomfort caused by lice flash flies
Problems caused by conditions such as charge fit
Danger of gas blisters blindness suffocation
Problem of rats searching for food/spreading diseases


Explain the reasons why so many Scots volunteer to fight in the war

Scotland already had a proud military/Marshall tradition
Peer pressure from family friends and wider society/sense of duty
Woman would encourage to price match into service with a white feather campaign
PG Artic appeal of slogans/people are carried away by with a PG design
Scots affected by stories of spies in Belgian actual cities of German army
Posters newspaperGovernment propaganda


Describe why some people were unhappy with DORA restrictions

People were unhappy that they could not straight for a better working conditions are P
Puppy owners were unhappy with instructions and alcohol limitation the pub opening hours watering down of alcohol affect on their ability to make a living
Blackout me is it dangerous to get around at night
People could be fined arrested imprisoned for breaking the terms of Dora


Drive economic difficulties faced by Scotland after the great war

Foreign competition affected industries such as cool iron and steel Duden's shipbuilding
Poo dentistry a relationship was a difficulty
High unemployment in certain industries in areas
The collapse of foreign markets for harden greatly affected industry call industry and declined you to competition from electricity
Lack of government investment
Technology was outdated and needed to be improved