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Flashcards in The Establishments Of New Political Systems Deck (23):
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Virginia Plan

The Large State Plan
During debate over the Constitution, it was the plan proposing a bicameral legislature with representative determined by proportional representation
Bicameral legislature
Proposed by Edmund Randolph and guided by James Madison (who wanted the govt divided into 3 branches: executive, judicial, and legislative)

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New Jersey Plan

Small State Plan
Plan proposing one legislative (unicameral) body for the country, with each state having one vote
Still favored a stronger central govt like Madison

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The Great Compromise

CT plan that stated that me house of the Congress would be based on population (the House of Representatives) while in the other house all states would have equal representation (Senate)

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Electoral College

Procedure for electing the president and vp of the US as outlines in the constitution
Electors from each state, not the popular vote, ultimately elect the president

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3/5th Compromise

Plan (as the Constitution was being created) that states slaves would be counted as 3/5th of a free person
This was used to determine eventual membership of the House of Representatives
Implemented the use of federal troops that decreased slave revolts

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Federalists

Party in the first years of the republic that favored a larger national govt
Was supported by commercial interests
Opposed by Jeffersonians (who wanted a smaller national govt)

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Alien and Sedition Acts

Proposed by President John Adams
Gave president power to expel "dangerous" aliens and outlawed "scandalous" publication against the govt
Idea passed with Bill of Rights
- caused by support to aid French Revolution
- decreased Adam's support as he ran against Thomas Jefferson

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Anti-Federalists

Sometimes equated the potential tyranny of a strong central govt to the tyranny under George III
Required a Bill of Rights to protect individual rights

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Washington almost never.....

Made legislative proposals

Believed it was his job to administer laws, not make them

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Bill of Rights

Originally written by James Madison
Supported by Anti Federalists
Guaranteed freedom of speech, worship, bear arms
Forbade quartering troops in private homes
Said warrants were requires before searches
Citizens could not be forced to testify against themselves
Guaranteed a trial by jury
Forbade cruel and unusual punishments

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Alexander Hamilton

Washington's Secretary of Treasury
Wanted t turn America's agrarian economy to a manufacturing based system like England
Advocate of mercantilist policies
*believed in a strong national govt with a broad constitution (Federalist)

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Thomas Jefferson

Declaration of Independence
Anti federalist/ Republicans (most popular in west and south)
Supported by James Madison (opposed by Alexander Hamilton)
Wanted america to remain agrarian and have industrialism as its sidekick with laissez-faire economic principles
Supported free trade (over mercantilism) in which prices were kept low
Influenced by the French Revolution, emphasizing the importance of STATES' power
Favored strict interpretation on the Constitution

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Report of Republic Credit

By Hamilton
Proposed that the US had the obligation to redeem in full all notes that had been issued by the govt est. by the AOC
* proposed a national bank that oils provide loans to developing industries
Wanted to pay off his proposals through higher tariffs and foreign imports
Opposed philosophically and practically by Jefferson and Madison but most of his ideas, besides industrial growth, were passed
* provided credit system and govt revenue

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Declaration of Neitrality

Issued by Washington soon after the outbreak of the French Revolution
Allowed american merchants to prosper by trading with both sides
Most Americans sided with the revolutionaries (mostly anti federalists) until they were appalled by its violence

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Whiskey Rebellion

Started by PN farmers who were inspired by the French Revolution
Opposed Hamilton's tax on alcohol (a tax that was in fact necessary because the govt desperately needed money)
Washington gathered an army to put it out but by the time they arrived in PN, the revolt was over

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Jay's Treaty

Chief Justice John Jay
negotiation with the British who had begun searching and seizing the "abundance" of American ships trading with the French West Indies while America was supposedly neutral aka Jay's Treaty (unpopular)
- unable to get Britain to promise not to undermine Americans at sea
- forced to comply to Britain's right to seize French goods from American ships
- BUT got Britain to agree to some level to leave forts in the Northwest Territory
* last straw for American tolerance from France

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Thomas Pinckey

Sent to negotiate with Spain
US gained navigation rights to Mississippi River and opened trade markets with Spain in the south and west
Extremely popular

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John Adams

Washing tons VP
Federalist
Won electoral college votes against Jefferson in 1796 (but TJ was second for popular vote so he became VP)
Unsuccessful in office (but he's over emphasized for succeeding Washington)
Allowed his cabinet members to make vital decisions

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the XYZ Affair

Through third parties, the French Prime Minister Talleyrand, informed Americans that a bribe would have to be paid for negotiations over the sinking of American ships to begin
American diplomats didn't pay and the public was furious
- Madison est. a navy
- potential war with France
- 2nd meeting (while Napoleon was in power) and Convention of 1800 eased tensions

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KY and VA Resolves

Proclaimed states had the right to not enforce laws passed by congress that were unconstitutional (Sedition Act)
*would later be the philosophy of southern states seceding from the union

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CT Plan

Proposal for a 2-house legislature, with one house based on proportional representation

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Convention of 1800

French agreed to compensate the US for ships seized during the previous decade.
Example where the US was not treated as an inferior nation

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Electoral college

Drafted in the original constitution
Voters approve electors, who elect the president of the US
It is possible to win the popular vote and lose the electoral college (ex. 1876- Hayes vs. Tilden and 2000- Bush vs. Gore)