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Flashcards in The First Crusade Deck (22)
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1. What is the Holy Land? (2)

The Land sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims…(1)
… in what was ancient Palestine (now Israel, Palestine and Jordan) (1)


2. What were the “Crusades”? (2)

A series of military campaigns launched in the name of the Church…(1)
…to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. (1)


3. Why is Jerusalem important to Christians? (2)

- It is the place where Jesus Christ died and was buried.
- The Church of the Holy Sepulchre stood at the site where Christians believed his tomb was found.


4. Why is Jerusalem important to Muslims? (2)

- Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven from there.
- The Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa mosque are sites of pilgrimage for Muslims.


5. When did the Seljuk Turks take control of the Holy Land? (1)



6. What were three consequence of the Seljuk Turks taking over the Holy Land? (3)

- Various Muslim groups struggled for power.
- It became harder for Christian pilgrims to visit.
- Rumours of mistreatment of Christians spread.


7. Why did Byzantine Emperor, Alexius, appeal to the Pope for help? (2)

- Feared the spread of Seljuk rule towards his own land
- Felt Seljuk rule was a threat to the Christian city of Constantinople.


8. What was the name of the Pope who launched the First Crusade?

Pope Urban II


9. When, where and why did the Pope deliver his famous speech? (3)

When - 1095
Where - Clermont in central France
Why - Called for a crusade to capture the Holy Land


10. What did the Pope say to persuade people to go on Crusade? (4)

- Europe was overpopulated.
- Not much wealth in Europe.
- If you died in battle, all your sins would be forgiven.
- Bandits could become soldiers.


11. Which two words did the Pope use to describe Muslims? (2)



12. What was the Muslim name for the Crusaders? (1)

Franks (meaning people from what is now France)


13. Give three other reasons, other than the Pope, why people went on Crusade. (3)

Any three from:

- It was a chance for knights to become heroes
- It was a Christian duty
- It would have been a great adventure
- The Holy Land was rich with luxuries such as golds and spices.
- It was a chance for rulers to encourage aggressive knights to go abroad.
- Crusaders paid no taxes while they were away.


14. What happened on “the People’s Crusade”? (4)

- Peter the Hermit led thousands of common men, women and knights.
- They marched nearly 2,000 miles
- The encountered trouble in Hungary and Byzantine along the way
- Their undisciplined army was slaughtered by Muslims


15. Who led the first official Crusader army? (2)

William the Conqueror’s son Robert of Normandy and William’s son in law, Stephen of Blois.


16. How many people in the first official Crusader army? (1)

Around 50,000


17. When was the siege of Antioch (1)



18. What happened in Antioch? (3)

- The Christians took over after laying siege to it.
- A Muslim army laid siege to the city after.
- Christians defeated the Muslims.


19. When was the siege of Jerusalem? (2)



20. What happened during the siege of Jerusalem? (4)

- 7th June – Crusaders first catch site of Jerusalem
- 1,500 troops laid siege to the city
- Genoese and English ships brought materials to build siege towers
- 15th July – the Crusaders breached the gate and slaughtered Muslims and Jews within the walls.


21. Who was the victor of the First Crusade? (1)



22. What was the name of the four “Crusader states” set up after 1099? (4)

- Kingdom of Jerusalem
- Tripoli
- Antioch
- Edessa