The part of a photoreceptor that lies between the outer segment and the cell nucleus.
The visual pigment found in rods.
A photopigment that is sensitive to ambient light.
An oscillation that travels through a medium by transferring energy from one particle or point to another without causing any permanent displacement of the medium.
ON bipolar cell
A bipolar cell that responds to an increase in light captured by the cones.
The watery fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye.
A cell that depolarizes in response to an increase in light intensity in its receptive-field center.
(1) The ability to perceive via the sense organs. (2) Extreme responsiveness to radiation, especially to light of a specific wavelength. 3. The ability to respond to transmitted signals.
A retinal cell that receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types (bipolar cells and amacrine cells) and transmits information to the brain and midbrain.
P ganglion cell
A small ganglion cell that receives excitatory input from single midget bipolar cells in the central retina and feeds the parvocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
The dark, circular opening at the center of the iris in the eye, where light enters the eye.
diffuse bipolar cell
A bipolar retinal cell whose processes are spread out to receive input from multiple cones.
The central part of the retina that has a high concentration of cones.
To disperse light in an irregular fashion.
The part of a photoreceptor that contains photopigment molecules.
A retinal cell that synapses with either rods or cones (not both) and with horizontal cells, and then passes the signals on to ganglion cells.
A cell that depolarizes in response to a decrease in light intensity in its receptive-field center.
The back layer of the retina—what the eye doctor sees through an ophthalmoscope.
A visual defect caused by the unequal curving of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the eye, usually the cornea.
An electrical potential that can vary continuously in amplitude.
(1) To alter the course of a wave of energy that passes into something from another medium, as water does to light entering it from the air. (2) To measure the degree of refraction in a lens or eye.
The light-catching part of the visual pigments of the retina.
A photoreceptor specialized for daylight vision, fine visual acuity, and color.
A retinal cell found in the inner synaptic layer that makes synaptic contacts with other cells of its kind, as well as bipolar cells and ganglion cells.
Nearsightedness, a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused in front of the retina and distant objects cannot be seen sharply.
A small pit, near the center of the macula, that contains the highest concentration of cones, and no rods. It is the portion of the retina that produces the highest visual acuity and serves as the point of fixation.
Allowing light to pass through with no interruption, so that objects on the other side can be clearly seen.
aging-related macular degeneration (AMD)
A disease associated with aging that affects the macula. AMD gradually destroys sharp central vision, making it difficult to read, drive, and recognize faces. There are two forms of AMD: wet and dry.
M ganglion cell
A ganglion cell resembling a little umbrella that receives excitatory input from diffuse bipolar cells and feeds the magnocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
A neuron located between the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
A measure of the finest detail that can be resolved by the eyes.
An increase in membrane potential such that the inner membrane surface becomes more negative than the outer membrane surface.
A photoreceptor specialized for night vision.
retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
A progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night vision and peripheral vision. RP commonly runs in families and can be caused by defects in a number of different genes that have recently been identified.
A picture or likeness.
The lens inside the eye that enables the changing of focus.
The difference in luminance between an object and the background, or between lighter and darker parts of the same object.
A light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye that contains rods and cones, which receive an image from the lens and send it to the brain through the optic nerve.
A blind spot in the visual field.
Activation by light.
The location where axons terminate at the synapse for transmission of information by the release of a chemical transmitter.
A quantum of visible light or other form of electromagnetic radiation demonstrating both particle and wave properties.
The transparent “window” into the eyeball.
An acoustic, electrical, electronic, or optical device, instrument, computer program, or neuron that allows the passage of some frequencies or digital elements and blocks the passage of others.
A specialized retinal cell that contacts both photoreceptor and bipolar cells.
To take up light, noise, or energy and not transmit it at all.
To redirect something that strikes a surface—especially light, sound, or heat—usually back toward its point of origin.
An opacity of the crystalline lens.
Farsightedness, a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused behind the retina and accommodation is required in order to see near objects clearly.
The colored part of the eye, consisting of a muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil and regulating the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil.
The transparent fluid that fills the vitreous chamber in the posterior part of the eye.
The region on the retina in which visual stimuli influence a neuron’s firing rate.
midget bipolar cell
A small bipolar cell in the central retina that receives input from a single cone.
Antagonistic neural interaction between adjacent regions of the retina.
A light-sensitive receptor in the retina.
The distance between the retinal image and the fovea.
In reference to the retina, consisting of two parts: the rods and cones, which operate under different conditions.
The process by which the eye changes its focus (in which the lens gets fatter as gaze is directed toward nearer objects).
To convert from one form of energy to another (e.g., from light to neural electrical energy, or from mechanical movement to neural electrical energy).
Literally “old sight.” The loss of near vision because of insufficient accommodation.
The condition in which there is no refractive error, because the refractive power of the eye is perfectly matched to the length of the eyeball.
OFF bipolar cell
A bipolar cell that responds to a decrease in light captured by the cones.
To convey something (e.g., light) from one place or thing to another.