The Gluteal Region & Posterior Thigh Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Gluteal Region & Posterior Thigh Deck (43):
1

gluteal region:

deep fascia of the gluteal region is continuous w/ the ___ of the thigh

fascia splits to enclose the ___ muscle

above this muscle, the fascia continues covering the ___ muscle & attaches to the ___

fascia lata

gluteus maximus muscle

gluteus medius muscle
iliac crest

2

muscles of the gluteal region (9)

gluteus maximus
gluteus medius
gluteus minimus
tensor fasciae latae
piriformis
obturator internus
superior gemellus
inferior gemellus
quadratus femoirs

3

muscles of the gluteal region:
gluteus maximus:

nerve(s)

action(s)

inferior gluteal nerve

extends & laterally rotates femur at hip joint
helps maintain kneejoint in extension

4

muscles of the gluteal region:
gluteus maximus:

called into action only during rapid & powerful (flexion/extension) or when ___ must be overcome

during normal gait cycle, (flexion/extension) of the femur at the hip is carried out primarily by the ___ (e.g., paralysis of the ___ muscle does not seriously compromise walking on level ground)

extension
resistance

extension
hamstrings
gluteus maximus muscle

5

muscles of the gluteal region:
gluteus maximus:

muscle definitely required for femur (flexion/extension) in three actions (3)

extension

climbing
going upstairs
getting up from squatting position

6

muscles of the gluteal region:
gluteal medius:

nerve(s)

action(s))

superoir gluteal nerve

abducts & medially rotates femur at hip joint

7

muscles of the gluteal region:
gluteal minimus:

nerve(s)

action(s))

superiro gluteal nerve

abducts & medially rotates femur at hip joint

8

muscles of the gluteal region:

gluteus medius & minimus are chief ___ of the thigh

an equally important function is steadying the ___ while walking (e.g., raise foot off ground, contraction of gluteal muscles of opposite side)

abductors

pelvis

9

trendelenburg gait:

if the gluteus medius & gluteus minimus muscles of one side are ___, the person exhibits a very characteristic gait

when the lower limb on the (affected/unaffected) side enters its swing phase, its side of the pelvis drops b/c the muscles on the other side ___

such a drop of the pelvis on the (affected/unaffected) side will ordinarily shift the entire trunk toward that side, with the result that the body's center of gravity is no longer over the supporting (affected/unaffected) side's foot

paralyzed

unaffected
cannot hold the pelvis level

unaffected
affected

10

trendelenburg gait:

the person would tend to fall over to his or her (affected/unaffected) side

in order to prevent a fall, the person will (medially/laterally) flex the lumbar spine toward the (affected/unaffected) side bringing the center of gravity of the trunk over the (affected/unaffected) side's foot

unaffected

laterally
affected
affected

11

muscles of the gluteal region:
tensor fascia latae:

nerve(s)

action(s)

superior gluteal nerve

flexes & abducts femur at hip joint

12

muscles of the gluteal region:

through their insertions in the ___ tract, the gluteus maximus & tensor fasciae latae assist in keeping the knee ___

the tract & its two associated muscles also help stabilize the ___

iliotibial tract
extended

hip joint

13

muscles of the gluteal region:
piriformis:

nerve(s)

action(s)

nerve to piriformis

laterally rotates femur at hip joint

14

muscles of the gluteal region:
obturator internus:

nerve(s)

action(s)

nerve to obturator internus

laterally rotates femur at hip joint

15

muscles of the gluteal region:
superior gemellus:

nerve(s)

action(s)

nerve to obturator internus

laterally rotates femur at hip joint

16

muscles of the gluteal region:
inferior gemellus:

nerve(s)

action(s)

nerve to quadratus femoris

laterally rotates femur at hip joint

17

muscles of the gluteal region:
quadratus femoris:

nerve(s)

action(s)

nerve to quadratus femoris

laterally rotates femur at hip joint

18

nerves of gluteal region (___ plexus):

takes form on (anterior/posterior) wall of pelvis just (medial/lateral) to sacral foramina

major portion of it lies on anterior surface of ___ muscle

forms from union of ___ & ___ (w/ spinal levels)

posterior
lateral

piriformis

lumbosacral trunk (L4, L5)
ventral rami (S1, S2, S3, S4)

19

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
major branches (7)

sciatic nerve (L4 - S3)
posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
superior gluteal nerve
inferior gluteal nerve
nerve of quadratus femoris
pudendal nerve (S2, S3, & S4)
nerve to obturator internus

20

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
sciatic nerve (L4 - S3):

emerges from pelvis through ___ foramen below ___ muscle

(smallest/largest) nerve in body

consists of two nerves (2)

greater sciatic foramen
piriformis muscle

largest

tibial nerve
common fibular nerve

21

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
sciatic nerve (L4 - S3):

runs downward successively on posterior surface of four muscles to reach back of one muscle one muscle (4) (1)

superior gemellus
obturator internus
inferior gemellus
quadratus femoris

adductor magnus

22

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
sciatic nerve (L4 - S3):

occasionally, the common fibular portion leaves the sciatic nerve high in the ___ & appears in the gluteal region by passing above or through the ___ muscle (clinically significant)

pelvis
piriformis muscle

23

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh:

passes out ___ foramen (above/below) the ___ muscle & passes downward just medial or posterior to the ___ nerve

gives off two branches while lying below the ___ muscle (2)

greater sciatic foramen
below
piriformis muscle
sciatic nerve

gluteus maximus muscle

inferior cluneal branch
perineal branch

24

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh:

supplies the (anterior/posterior) ___

inferior cluneal to ___

perineal branch to ___ or ___

posterior thigh

buttocks

scrotum or labia majora

25

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
superior gluteal nerve:

exits the ___ foramen (above/below) the ___ muscle and runs in the plane b/n the ___ & ___ muscles

supplies three muscles (3)

greater sciatic foramen
above
piriformis muscle
gluteus medius & gluteus minimus muscles

gluteus medius
gluteus minimus
tensor fasciae latae

26

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
inferior gluteal nerve:

exits the ___ foramen (above/below) the level of the ___ muscle

supplies the ___ muscle

greater sciatic foramen
below
piriformis muscle

gluteus maximus muscle

27

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
nerve to the quadratus femoris:

exits the ___ foramen (above/below) the ___ muslce

supplies two muscles (2)

greater sciatic foramen
below
piriformis muscle

quadratus femoris
inferior gemmelus

28

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
pudendal nerve (S2, S3, & S4) & nerve to obturator internus:

exit pelvis through ___ foramen (above/below) the ___ muscle

pudendal nerve supplies the ___

nerve to the obturator internus supplies the ___ & ___ muscles

greater sciatic foramen
below
piriformis muscle

perineum

obturator internus
superior gemellus

29

nerves of gluteal region (sacral plexus):
pudendal nerve (S2, S3, & S4) & nerve to obturator internus:

hook around the ___ or ___ w/ the ___ vessels 7 pass through the ___ foramen to enter the ___ fossa of the ___

ischial spine or sacrospinous ligament
internal pudendal vessels
lesser sciatic foramen
ischiorectal fossa of the perineum

30

posterior compartment of the thigh:
muscles (4)

biceps femoris
semitendinosus
semimembranosus
hamstring portion of adductor magnus

31

posterior compartment of the thigh:

blood supply: branches of the ___ artery

nerve supply

group muscle action(s)

profunda femoris artery

sciatic nerve (tibial division)

extension of thigh
flexion of leg

32

posterior compartment of the thigh:
biceps femoris:

nerve(s)
- long head
- short head

action(s)

tibial nerve
common fibular nerve

extends femur at hip joint
flexes & laterally rotates leg at knee joint

33

posterior compartment of the thigh:
semitendinosus:

nerve(s)

action(s)

tibial nerve

extends femur at hip joint
flexes & medially rotates leg at knee joint

34

posterior compartment of the thigh:
semimembranosus:

nerve(s)

action(s)

tendon gives off a heavy lateral ___ which runs obliquely across the posterior surface of the ___ joint: ___ ligament

tibial nerve

extends femur at hip joint
flexes & medially rotates leg at knee joint

expansion
knee joint
oblique popliteal ligament

35

hamstring injuries:

relatively common ___ injuries

involve tearing of the ___ attachments to the ___

tearing of the ___ fibers is extremely painful

sports injuries

proximal tendinous attachments
ischial tuberosity

tendinous fibers

36

pes anserinus tendons (inverted tripod configuration):

muscles & respective nerves (3)

action(s)

sartorius (femoral nerve)
gracilus (obturator nerve)
semitendinosus (tibial nerve)

flex knee joint
provide additional support to knee joint

37

popliteal fossa:

___-shaped area (anterior/posterior) to ___

boundaries (muscles):
- superolateral (1)
- superomedial (2)
- inferomedial & inferolateral (1)

diamond
posterior
knee

biceps formis
semimembranosus & semitendinosus
gastrocemius muscle bellies

38

popliteal fossa:
superficial contents (3)

fat
small saphenous vein
three cutaneous nerves

39

popliteal fossa:
deep contents (3)

popliteal artery & vein
tibial & common peroneal nerve
popliteal lymph nodes

40

popliteal fossa:
structures in center of fossa (medial to lateral, deep to superficial) (3)

popliteal artery
popliteal vein
tibial nerve

41

popliteal fossa:
popliteal artery:

continuation of ___ artery after passing through the ___

terminates at lower border of ___ muscle

femoral artery
adductor hiatus

popliteus muscle

42

popliteal fossa:
popliteal artery:

divides into two arteries at lower border of popliteus muscle (2)

within the fossa, gives off ___ branches supplying the ___ & related structures

anterior tibial artery
posterior tibial artery

genicular branches
knee joint

43

popliteal fossa:
popliteal vein:

receives the ___ vein

small saphenous vein

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