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Flashcards in The Hand_MSB Deck (81):
1

What are the two eminence on the palmar surface of hand?

1) Thenar eminence
2) Hypothenar eminence

2

What is the difference between Thenar eminence and hypothenar eminence?

- Thenar eminence: More prominent, Lateral
- Hypothenar eminence: Smaller, Medial

3

What is the Thenar eminence and Hypothenar eminence separated by?

Separated by central concavity

4

What are the three Thenar muscles?

• Abductor pollicis brevis
• Flexor pollicis brevis
• Opponens pollicis (deep)

5

What are the three Hypothenar muscles?

• Abductor digiti minimi
• Flexor digiti minimi brevis
• Opponens digiti minimi

6

What is the Thenar muscles innervated by?

Median nerve

7

What is the Hypothenar muscles innervated by?

Ulnar nerve

8

What is the ORIGIN of the Abductor Pollicis Brevis muscle?

1) Trapezium,
2) Scaphoid,
3) Flexor Retinaculum

9

What is the INSERTION of the Abductor pollicis brevis muscle?

1) Base of Proximal Phalanx
2) Extensor hood of thumb

10

What is the INNERVATION of the Abductor pollicis brevis muscle?

Recurrent branch of median nerve

11

What is the ACTION of the Abductor pollicis brevis muscle?

1) Abduction at metacarpophalangeal joint.
2) Assists in thumb opposition

12

What is the ORIGIN of the Flexor Pollicis Brevis muscle?

1) Tubercle of Trapezium,
2) Flexor Retinaculum

13

What is the INSERTION of the Flexor Pollicis Brevis muscle?

Base of proximal Phalanx of thumb

14

What is the INNERVATION of the Flexor Pollicis Brevis muscle?

Recurrent branch of median nerve

15

What is the ACTION of the Flexor Pollicis Brevis muscle?

1) Flexes the thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint.
2) Assists in thumb opposition

16

What is the ORIGIN of the Opponens Pollicis muscle?

1) Tubercle of Trapezium
2) Flexor Retinaculum

17

What is the INSERTION of the Opponens Pollicis muscle?

Lateral border of first metacarpal

18

What is the INNERVATION of the Opponens Pollicis muscle?

Recurrent branch of median nerve

19

What is the ACTION of the Opponens Pollicis muscle?

1) Opposition of thumb.
2) Medially rotates & flexes metacarpal 1 during opposition of thumb

20

What is the ORIGIN of the Abductor Digiti Minimi muscle?

1) Pisiform Bone,
2) Tendon of Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

21

What is the INSERTION of the Abductor Digiti Minimi muscle?

Medial base of proximal phalanx of little finger

22

What is the INNERVATION of the Abductor Digiti Minimi muscle?

Ulnar Nerve

23

What is the ACTION of the Abductor Digiti Minimi muscle?

Abducts little finger

24

What is the ORIGIN of the Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis muscle?

1) Flexor Retinaculum
2) Hook of Hamate

25

What is the INSERTION of the Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis muscle?

Medial base of proximal phalanx of little finger

26

What is the INNERVATION of the Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis muscle?

Ulnar Nerve

27

What is the ACTION of the Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis muscle?

Flexes proximal phalanx of little finger

28

What is the ORIGIN of the Opponens Digiti Minimi muscle?

1) Flexor Retinaculum
2) Hook of Hamate

29

What is the INSERTION of the Opponens Digiti Minimi muscle?

Medial border of metacarpal 5

30

What is the INNERVATION of the Opponens Digiti Minimi muscle?

Ulnar Nerve

31

What is the ACTION of the Opponens Digiti Minimi muscle?

Rotates metacarpal 5 in opposing little finger to thumb

32

Which is the deep Thenar muscle?

Opponens pollicis

33

Which is the superficial Thenar muscle?

1) Abductor pollicis brevis
2) Flexor pollicis brevis

34

What are the different compartments of the intrinsic muscles of the hand and what are the muscles in each compartment?

1. Thenar: thenar muscles
2. Hypothenar: hypothenar muscles
3. Adductor: adductor pollicis
4. Central: lumbricals
5. Interosseus: interossei

35

What muscle is in the Adductor compartment?

Adductor pollicis muscle

36

What is the ORIGIN of the Adductor Pollicis muscle?

1) Anterior surfaces of Capitate
2) Trapezoid metacarpals 2 and 3

37

What is the INSERTION of the Adductor Pollicis muscle?

Medial base of proximal pahalanx of thumb

38

What is the INNERVATION of the Adductor Pollicis muscle?

Ulnar nerve

39

What is the ACTION of the Adductor Pollicis muscle?

Adducts thumb

40

What is the Extensor Expansion/Hood?

Triangular-shaped connective tissue
aponeurosis over proximal phalanges

41

What inserts onto the Extensor Expansion?

Insertion point for Lumbricals & Interossei muscles

42

What attaches to the Extensor Hood?

The tendons of the extensor digiti minimi, extensor indicis, and extensor pollicis brevis muscles attach to the extensor hoods

43

What passes to the dorsal aspect of digits?

Tendons of extensor digitorum & extensor pollicis longus muscles pass to the dorsal aspect of the digits

44

What forms the extensor hood?

Expansions over the proximal phalanges form extensor hoods

45

How many lumbrical muscles are there?

4

46

What is the ORIGIN of the Lumbrical muscles?

Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Profundus

47

What is the INSERTION of the Lumbrical muscles?

Extensor Expansions of digits 2-5
• Extending from flexor tendon to extensor expansion.
• Linking flexor tendons to extensor

48

What is the INNERVATION of the Lumbrical muscles?

Lateral 2 (1st & 2nd): Median Nerve
Medial 2 (3rd & 4th): Ulnar Nerve

49

What is the ACTION of the Lumbrical muscles?

1) Flexes Digits 2-5 at metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints
2) Extends interphalangeal (IP) joints

50

What are the four Lumbrical muscle?

Lateral 2 (1st & 2nd): Unipennate
Medial 2 (3rd & 4th): Bipennate

51

What does unipennate mean?

when all the fascicles are on the same side of the tendon

52

What does bipennate mean?

when there are fascicles on both sides of the central tendon

53

What causes the Ulnar claw?

Ulnar nerve lesion at the wrist (Deformity evident at rest)
- problem with the Ulnar nerve

54

What happens when you have the Ulnar claw?

1) The lumbricals to digits 4 & 5 are paralysed
2) Loss of flexion at MCP joints & loss of extension of IP joints

55

When having the Ulnar claw, it is because the lumbricals to digit 4 & 5 are paralysed and there is a loss of flexion at MCP joint and loss of extension of IP joints, what does this lead to?

Leads to:
• Hyperextension of MCP joints –
unopposed Extensor Digitorum
• Flexion of IP joints – unopposed Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus

56

What is the Hand of Benediction?

The hand of benediction results from prolonged compression or injury of the median nerve or the ulnar nerve at the forearm or elbow.

57

How do you know if its a median nerve compression when somebody has the Hand of Benediction?

With median nerve compression, the "benediction" sign only appears when the patient attempts to make a fist, but is not present with the hand open.

58

How do you know if its a ulnar nerve compression when somebody has the Hand of Benediction?

With ulnar nerve compression, the "benediction" sign only appears when the patient attempts to extend all fingers, but is not present with the hand closed.

59

Where is the Interossei Muscles located?

located between the metacarpals

60

Where does the Interossei Muscles insert into?

insert into the proximal phalanx of each digit and into the extensor hood

61

How many groups can the Interossei Muscles be divided into? and what are they?

Can be divided into 2 groups:
• Dorsal interossei (4)
• Palmar interossei (3)

62

What are Interossei muscles innervated by?

All interossei are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve

63

What does the Interossei muscles do?

1) Interossei abduct & adduct the digits
2) Contribute to flexion/extension movements generated by the extensor hoods

64

What is the ORIGIN of the Dorsal Interossei muscle?

Adjacent sides of metacarpals (1, 2) (2, 3) (3, 4) (4,5)

65

What is the INSERTION of the Dorsal Interossei muscle?

Extensor hood & base of proximal phalanges of index, middle & ring fingers

66

What is the INNERVATION of the Dorsal Interossei muscle?

Ulnar Nerve

67

What is the ACTION of the Dorsal Interossei muscle?

Abduction
"Think ‘DAB’ Dorsal - Abduction"

68

What is the ORIGIN of the Palmar Interossei muscle?

Sides of metacarpals 2, 4, 5

69

What is the INSERTION of the Palmar Interossei muscle?

Extensor hoods of index, ring & little fingers

70

What is the INNERVATION of the Palmar Interossei muscle?

Ulnar Nerve

71

What is the ACTION of the Palmar Interossei muscle?

Adduction ‘PAD’

72

How many Palmar Interossei muscle is there sometimes to be considered?

4 instead of 3, the fourth being: Rudimentary interossei muscle

73

What is the ORIGIN of the Rudimentary Interossei muscle?

Origin side of thumb (metacarpal 1)

74

What is the INSERTION of the Rudimentary Interossei muscle?

Insertion base of proximal phalanx & extensor hood of thumb

75

When considered, what is the Rudimentary Interossei considered to be part of?

Considered part of either the adductor pollicis or flexor pollicis brevis muscles

76

Why is there NO adduction of Middle finger?

Middle finger already in the midline, doesn't have the Palmar Interossei, therefore there isn't a need to adduct it.

77

In the Intrinsic Muscles of the hand, which is innervated by the Ulnar Nerve?

1) Hypothenar muscles
• Abductor digiti minimi
• Flexor digiti minimi brevis
• Opponens digiti minimi
2) Adductor pollicis
3) Palmaris Brevis
4) Dorsal Interossei (4)
5) Palmar Interossei (3/4)
6) Lumbricals (3rd & 4th (medial))

78

In the Intrinsic Muscles of the hand, which is innervated by the Median Nerve?

1) Lumbricals (1st & 2nd (lateral))
2) Thenar muscles
• Abductor pollicis brevis
• Flexor pollicis brevis
• Opponens pollicis (deep)

79

What is the Intrinsic muscles of the hand responsible for?

1) Complex delicate movements of the digits
2) Execute precision movements (precision grip) with the fingers and thumb
• The ability to flex the metacarpophalangeal joints while at the same time extending the interphalangeal joints

80

Which muscles can't achieve movements (possible by the intrinsic muscles) alone?

Such movements could not be accomplished with the long flexor & extensor tendons alone

81

What type of muscles are the long flexor and extensor tendons? Where do they originate in? What is their function?

• Extrinsic muscles which originate in the forearm & insert in the hand
• Function in forcefully gripping with the hand (power grip)