The surface area of respiratory organs is
Highly folded and branched extensions of the body
Internal cavities for gas exchange with air
Air filled tubes used for respiuration
Hemoglobin is what kind of macromolecule?
How many binding sites does hemoglobin have?
Ability of hemoglobin to interact with oxygen depends on
the partial pressure of O2
At a high PO2, oxygen capacity is at its ______
At Hb's highest oxygen capacity, all binding sites ______
are filled with O2
What is (positive) cooperative binding?
One O2 molecule binding affects the other O2 binding sites and increases affinity for O2
True/False: Hb does not change structure after every O2 molecule bound
False: every attachment DOES change structure
Muscle O2 binding molecule is
How many binding sites does myoglobin have? Cooperative or non?
Myoglobin is used for
high metabolic demands (exercise)
Myoglobin releases its O2 when?
After Hb O2 has depleted
The two chains for adult Hb
alpha and beta chains
Two chains for fetal Hb
alpha and gamma
Llama, fetal, adultList those in order of Hb affinity from highest to lowest
Llama, fetal, adult
What is the Bohr Effect
pH of blood decreases so affinity of Hb decreases as well (due to uptake of fatty acids and CO2)
How does H+ lower Hb affinity
it binds to deoexygenated RBC
T/F O2 is released at low pH
True (less affinity for oxygen)
CO2 is transported as what in the blood
What enzyme speeds up the conversion of O2 to cabonic acid?
Describe the conversion formula of CO2 to bicarbonate
H2O + CO2 -> carbonic acid --> bicarbonate and H+
How is the conversion of CO2 and bicarbonate different in the lungs?
It is reversed
3 factors of Hb affinity
composition, pH, and bisphosphoglyceric acid (BPG)
What is BPG?
bisphosphoglyceric acid . it is a metabolite of glycolysis
What does BPG do to blood
same effect on Hb as H+, allows more oxygen release
What is the output of the excretory system?
What macromolecules do not leave the bloodstream?
True/False: Water can undergo active transport
The 3 functions of the excretory system
Filtration, secretion, re-absorption
The most common nitrogenous waste is
What does the body to to ammonia?
convert it into urea or uric acid
term for excreting pure ammonia
Term for excreting urine/uric acid
What produces the urine, what stores it?
Kidney produces it, the bladder stores it
Ammonia is secreted to do what to pH
The renal ___ and renal ____ enter the kidney on the ___ side
atery, veinconcave side
Renal pyramids are
the cells that make up the medulla
The medulla is the
internal core of the kidney
What is the cortex
the outer layer of the medulla
Urine is concentrated in the
Kidneys also help regulate _____ balance
What is renal failure
loss of kidney function, retention of salts and water, treated with dialysis
What is the purpose of the circulatory system?
transport nutrients, hormones, metabolic products, gastemperature control
3 parts of the circulatory system
pump (heart)conduits (vessels)transport medium (blood)
Increased # of heart chambers means
increased separation of blood flow
How many chambers does the heart have?
4: 2 atria and 2 ventricle
Valves of the heart prevent
The sound of the heart is made from
the opening and closing of valves
Blood enters the heart from the ____ and leaves through the ___
left atrium, right ventricle
2 types of circulatory systems
open and closed
Describe the open circulatory system
blood enters tissues directly, no capillariesex: insects and mollusks
Describe the closed circulatory system
capillaries present and blood never leaves vessels. (ex vertebrates)
2 circuits of the closed circulatory system
Pulmonary circuit deals with
systemic circuit deals with
the whole body besides lungs
The right side of the heart deals with circulation to the
the left side of the heart deals with circulation to the
rest of the body (systemic)
Heart contractions start at the ___ then the ____
Heartbeat is controlled by what 2 components
Sinatrial node and Atrioventricular node(SA and AV nodes)
Describe the SA node
the heart pacemaker, it is the master nodeinitiates APs for the atriaslocated on the right atrium
APs for heart beats spread through the heart via
gap junctions provide what for the heart
coordinated atrial contraction
Describe the AV node
stimulated by the SA node with a 0.1 sec delayAPs for the ventricles
True/False: The CNS stimulates heartbeat
Fish have ___ heart chambers. Is there separation of circuits? Reptiles?
2 chambers, no separationreptiles have 3 chambers, circuits partially divided
The mid-line of the heart is made of
bundles of his
What do bundles of His do?
Carry action potentials
What are bundles of His made of?
T/F: Bundles of his do not contract
T/F: gap junctions lie along the bundles of His
What are Purkinje fibers?
Fibers that carry our AP's in ventricles (like His) located on edges of heart
How long is the delay of the AV node from the SA node?
AP of the heart is governed by permeability of what ion?
Order of vessels blood goes through starting from the heart
Heart -> arteries -> arterioes -> capillaries -> venules -> veins (think alphabetical order)
Label each type of vessel with the respective pressure levels inside
Artery - very highArteriole - moderatecapillary - lowvenules - lowveins- very low(pressure decreases as it cycles through)
Properties of the artery
elastic fibers (thick elastin protein)smooth musclealways takes blood away from the heart
Properties of the arteriole
slightly elasticsmooth musclecontrol blood flow to tissues in response to:systemic conditions & concentrations
thin wallshigh permeabilityhigh SA and volume
CO2 and lactate
some elastic fibersno smooth muscle
Properties of veins
some elasticonly vessels with valves to prevent backflowtakes blood towards the heartthin layer of smooth muscle
T/F: skeletal muscle helps veins direct blood flow back to heart
What percent of blood resides in veins
Gravity pulls blood downwards which causes attempt of blood to
an increase of heat expansion means contractile cells contract harder
T/F: there are gap junctions between atria and ventricles
What controls distribution to capillary beds?
Capillaries are how thick? Is it permeable?
1 cell layer thinck, permable to everything basically
If the pressure difference between osmotic and blood is positive, then there is a net _____ force, if it is negative there is a net ____ force
outward force, inward force
If there is a net outward force there is an overall
Net inward force means
Constant osmotic pressure is due to
If blood is protein deficient, what happens?
too much transport outblood thins and becomes hard to pumpEdema- swollen tissues
swollen tissues due to lack of proteins in blood
What increases O2 pressure do there's no edema? (Hint: exercise)
CO2 (as bicarbonate)
What is the purpose of the excretory system?
maintain osmotic balance and remove toxic wastes
What is the nephron?
Structural unit of the kidney
How many parts does the nephoron have and what are they?
3Renal corpuscleRenal TubuleCollecting Duct
List the parts of the Renal Copuscle
List the parts of the Renal Tublules
Proximal convluted tube (PCT)Loop of HenleDistal Convuluted tube
What is the function of the collecting duct?
Collects, processes, secretes urine
Describe the Bowmans Capsule
First part of the renal corpusclecontains podocytes
What are podocytes
Cells in the Bowmans Capsule that have high SA
Describe the Glomerulus
surrounded by the Bowman capsuleknot of permeable capillaries
What happens at the renal corpuscle
What happens at the renal tubes
secretion and absorption
T/F: water is more oxygenated outside of the blood
The action potential sent to the kidneys is received in the
The longer the loop of Henle
The more water retention
The PCT is mainly made of the
pores that facilitate passive water transfer
Aquaporins are found where in the nephron?
PCTDescending limb of the loopCollecting duct
Is the descending limb of the loop thin or thick?
What leaves the descending limb of the loop?
T/F: The descending limb of the loop has mitochondria
Is the ascending limb of the loop thin or thick?
What leaves the ascending limb of the loop?
T/F: The ascending limb of the loop has mitochondria?
The main function of the distal tube is
"fine tuning" of re-absorption/secretion
The loop of Henle creates a _______ and creates a ______ concentration gradient in the _____
counter-current exchangeNaCl concentration gradientmedula
What region of the heart is self-excitatory?
2 regulation mechanisms for the kidney
Local and systematic
Local control in the kidney takes care of
dilation of afferent arterioles
Afferent arterioles are
the vessels that bring blood to the kidney/glomerulus
Systemic controls involve
ADH/VasopressinRennin & other hormones
Hormones that increase water absorption
ADH and Aldosterone
What percent of re-absorption happens at the PCT
What does ADH do in the kidney
it increases the number of aquaporins for more water retention
_____ allows rapid spread of AP in the heart
APs in cardiac cells differ by ___ and ____
kineticsion channels involved
Acetylcholine is released to do what to the heart?
slow heart rate (increase permeability of K+; decrease perm of Ca+)
Parasympethic nerves do what?
release Ach to decrease pacemaker activity (to slow heart rate)
Sympathetic nerves do what?
release hormones (nor) epinephrine to increase heart rate
What does nor-epinephrine do for the heart
increases Na and Ca permeability (rises resting potential and APs are closer together)
How does the nervous system control the heart rate?
Influences resting potential of the pacemaker cells
The core function of the veins is to
STORE blood (walls very expandable)
What percent of O2 is conserved in Hb
What are the efficient carriers for O2
Red blood cells
At a low PO2, the _____ reserves are released
A high metabolic rate decreases ____, which means greater ____ release
RBC production is stimulated by
low O2 content in tissues
Blood moves fast in what to maintain O2 and CO2 gradients
Direction of fluid depends on the balance between ___ and ___ pressure
blood and osmotic
Osmotic balance is important to prevent
extreme volume changes
PCT is the major site of
PCT regulates pH by
releasing H+ ions and taking in bicarbonate ions
T/F: the PCT contains many mitochondria because it performs active transport
What makes gases more soluble in blood
enzymes and proteins
The degree of urea in the collecting duct depends on the
What volume of fluid is reabsorbed in the kidney/nephron by the PCT?
Mutated disfunctional aquaporin leads to
Atrial naturic peptide is an ___ process and is released in ____ BP
Counter-current exchange creates _____ osmotic gradients
Describe the Rennin-Angitensin-Aldosterone (RAA) process
renin released from the kidney -> activates Angiotensin in blood -> aldosterone released from adrenal cortex
RAA process happens when BP is ___ and there is ____ osmilarity to ____ blood volume
ADH and aldosterone ___ BP
If the process just stops at the activation of angiostensin, ____ is stimulated
Aldosterone stimulate salt _____
In an EKG chart what do P Q R S and T each stand for?
P= depolarization/contraction of atriaQ,R,S = depolarization of ventriclesT=relaxation/re-polarization of ventricles
In the end, blood leaves the kidney through ___ capillaries
Describe the travel of urine from the kindey to outside
kidney releases urine into the ureter -> urinary bladder -> out through urethra
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) depends on
the blood supply to the kidney
What does the auto-regulatory system do for the kidney
make sure the supply and BP are at good levels
Deoxygenated blood flows to where
Gas exchange organs of the body
Main physical component of Arteries and arterioles
What vessel controls distribution to capillary beds
What alters diameter/resistance to blood flow?
Identity of molecules in blood depends on
How does the blood-brain barrier relate to capillaries
Lack of pores in membraneOnly lipid soluble
What vessels return fluid to major vein to the heart
Functions Renal corpuscle = filtrationRenal tubule= absorptionCollecting duct= urine
Collecting ducts start at __, pass through ___, empty into ____
Glomeruli are located in
Renal tubes loop through the
Bottom part of the ascending limb is thin or thick?
Loop of Henle does what to the medula?
Establishes an external concentration gradient
Water leaves the collecting duct via ______
When water leaves the CD, what happens to urine
It becomes more concentrated
T/F: collecting duct is highly permeable to urea at the bottom
FALSE only slightly permeable
CD passes through ____ osmolarity of the medulla, created by the ____
IncreasingLoop of Henle
Adequate blood pressure
Angiotensin increases BP by effects on
Vessels and fluid intake