The heart, kidney, and circulatory/excretory system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The heart, kidney, and circulatory/excretory system Deck (187):
2

The surface area of respiratory organs is

large

3

Highly folded and branched extensions of the body

gills

4

Internal cavities for gas exchange with air

lungs

5

Air filled tubes used for respiuration

tracheae

6

Hemoglobin is what kind of macromolecule?

A protein

7

How many binding sites does hemoglobin have?

4

8

Ability of hemoglobin to interact with oxygen depends on

the partial pressure of O2

9

At a high PO2, oxygen capacity is at its ______

highest

10

At Hb's highest oxygen capacity, all binding sites ______

are filled with O2

11

What is (positive) cooperative binding?

One O2 molecule binding affects the other O2 binding sites and increases affinity for O2

12

True/False: Hb does not change structure after every O2 molecule bound

False: every attachment DOES change structure

13

Muscle O2 binding molecule is

myoglobin

14

How many binding sites does myoglobin have? Cooperative or non?

1 non-cooperative

15

Myoglobin is used for

high metabolic demands (exercise)

16

Myoglobin releases its O2 when?

After Hb O2 has depleted

17

The two chains for adult Hb

alpha and beta chains

18

Two chains for fetal Hb

alpha and gamma

19

Llama, fetal, adultList those in order of Hb affinity from highest to lowest

Llama, fetal, adult

20

What is the Bohr Effect

pH of blood decreases so affinity of Hb decreases as well (due to uptake of fatty acids and CO2)

21

How does H+ lower Hb affinity

it binds to deoexygenated RBC

22

T/F O2 is released at low pH

True (less affinity for oxygen)

23

CO2 is transported as what in the blood

bicarbonate ions

24

What enzyme speeds up the conversion of O2 to cabonic acid?

carbonic anhydrase

25

Describe the conversion formula of CO2 to bicarbonate

H2O + CO2 -> carbonic acid --> bicarbonate and H+

26

How is the conversion of CO2 and bicarbonate different in the lungs?

It is reversed

27

3 factors of Hb affinity

composition, pH, and bisphosphoglyceric acid (BPG)

28

What is BPG?

bisphosphoglyceric acid . it is a metabolite of glycolysis

29

What does BPG do to blood

same effect on Hb as H+, allows more oxygen release

30

What is the output of the excretory system?

Urine

31

What macromolecules do not leave the bloodstream?

proteins

32

True/False: Water can undergo active transport

NO

33

The 3 functions of the excretory system

Filtration, secretion, re-absorption

34

The most common nitrogenous waste is

NH3 ammonia

35

What does the body to to ammonia?

convert it into urea or uric acid

36

term for excreting pure ammonia

ammonotelic

37

Term for excreting urine/uric acid

ureiotlic

38

What produces the urine, what stores it?

Kidney produces it, the bladder stores it

39

Ammonia is secreted to do what to pH

regulate it

40

The renal ___ and renal ____ enter the kidney on the ___ side

atery, veinconcave side

41

Renal pyramids are

the cells that make up the medulla

42

The medulla is the

internal core of the kidney

43

What is the cortex

the outer layer of the medulla

44

Urine is concentrated in the

collecting duct

45

Kidneys also help regulate _____ balance

acid-base balance

46

What is renal failure

loss of kidney function, retention of salts and water, treated with dialysis

47

What is the purpose of the circulatory system?

transport nutrients, hormones, metabolic products, gastemperature control

48

3 parts of the circulatory system

pump (heart)conduits (vessels)transport medium (blood)

49

Increased # of heart chambers means

increased separation of blood flow

50

How many chambers does the heart have?

4: 2 atria and 2 ventricle

51

Valves of the heart prevent

backflow

52

The sound of the heart is made from

the opening and closing of valves

53

Blood enters the heart from the ____ and leaves through the ___

left atrium, right ventricle

54

2 types of circulatory systems

open and closed

55

Describe the open circulatory system

blood enters tissues directly, no capillariesex: insects and mollusks

56

Describe the closed circulatory system

capillaries present and blood never leaves vessels. (ex vertebrates)

57

2 circuits of the closed circulatory system

pulmonarysystemic

58

Pulmonary circuit deals with

the lungs

59

systemic circuit deals with

the whole body besides lungs

60

The right side of the heart deals with circulation to the

lungs (pulmonary)

61

the left side of the heart deals with circulation to the

rest of the body (systemic)

62

Heart contractions start at the ___ then the ____

atria, ventricle

63

Heartbeat is controlled by what 2 components

Sinatrial node and Atrioventricular node(SA and AV nodes)

64

Describe the SA node

the heart pacemaker, it is the master nodeinitiates APs for the atriaslocated on the right atrium

65

APs for heart beats spread through the heart via

gap junctions

66

gap junctions provide what for the heart

coordinated atrial contraction

67

Describe the AV node

stimulated by the SA node with a 0.1 sec delayAPs for the ventricles

68

True/False: The CNS stimulates heartbeat

False

69

Fish have ___ heart chambers. Is there separation of circuits? Reptiles?

2 chambers, no separationreptiles have 3 chambers, circuits partially divided

70

The mid-line of the heart is made of

bundles of his

71

What do bundles of His do?

Carry action potentials

72

What are bundles of His made of?

muscle fibers

73

T/F: Bundles of his do not contract

True

74

T/F: gap junctions lie along the bundles of His

True

75

What are Purkinje fibers?

Fibers that carry our AP's in ventricles (like His) located on edges of heart

76

How long is the delay of the AV node from the SA node?

0.1 sec

77

AP of the heart is governed by permeability of what ion?

Ca+

78

Diastole stage?

Ventricular relaxation

79

Systole Stage?

Ventricular contraction

80

Order of vessels blood goes through starting from the heart

Heart -> arteries -> arterioes -> capillaries -> venules -> veins (think alphabetical order)

81

Label each type of vessel with the respective pressure levels inside

Artery - very highArteriole - moderatecapillary - lowvenules - lowveins- very low(pressure decreases as it cycles through)

82

Properties of the artery

elastic fibers (thick elastin protein)smooth musclealways takes blood away from the heart

83

Properties of the arteriole

slightly elasticsmooth musclecontrol blood flow to tissues in response to:systemic conditions & concentrations

84

Capillary properties

thin wallshigh permeabilityhigh SA and volume

85

Waste includes

CO2 and lactate

86

Venule properties

some elastic fibersno smooth muscle

87

Properties of veins

some elasticonly vessels with valves to prevent backflowtakes blood towards the heartthin layer of smooth muscle

88

T/F: skeletal muscle helps veins direct blood flow back to heart

True

89

What percent of blood resides in veins

60%

90

Gravity pulls blood downwards which causes attempt of blood to

backflow

91

Frank-starling law

an increase of heat expansion means contractile cells contract harder

92

T/F: there are gap junctions between atria and ventricles

FALSE

93

What controls distribution to capillary beds?

Arterlioes

94

Capillaries are how thick? Is it permeable?

1 cell layer thinck, permable to everything basically

95

If the pressure difference between osmotic and blood is positive, then there is a net _____ force, if it is negative there is a net ____ force

outward force, inward force

96

If there is a net outward force there is an overall

excretion

97

Net inward force means

overall uptake

98

Constant osmotic pressure is due to

proteins

99

If blood is protein deficient, what happens?

too much transport outblood thins and becomes hard to pumpEdema- swollen tissues

100

Edema

swollen tissues due to lack of proteins in blood

101

What increases O2 pressure do there's no edema? (Hint: exercise)

CO2 (as bicarbonate)

102

What is the purpose of the excretory system?

maintain osmotic balance and remove toxic wastes

103

What is the nephron?

Structural unit of the kidney

104

How many parts does the nephoron have and what are they?

3Renal corpuscleRenal TubuleCollecting Duct

105

List the parts of the Renal Copuscle

Bowman's CapsuleGlomerulus

106

List the parts of the Renal Tublules

Proximal convluted tube (PCT)Loop of HenleDistal Convuluted tube

107

What is the function of the collecting duct?

Collects, processes, secretes urine

108

Describe the Bowmans Capsule

First part of the renal corpusclecontains podocytes

109

What are podocytes

Cells in the Bowmans Capsule that have high SA

110

Describe the Glomerulus

surrounded by the Bowman capsuleknot of permeable capillaries

111

What happens at the renal corpuscle

filtration

112

What happens at the renal tubes

secretion and absorption

113

T/F: water is more oxygenated outside of the blood

FALSE

114

The action potential sent to the kidneys is received in the

PCT

115

The longer the loop of Henle

The more water retention

116

The PCT is mainly made of the

glomerulus

117

Aquaporins are

pores that facilitate passive water transfer

118

Aquaporins are found where in the nephron?

PCTDescending limb of the loopCollecting duct

119

Is the descending limb of the loop thin or thick?

Thin

120

What leaves the descending limb of the loop?

H2O

121

T/F: The descending limb of the loop has mitochondria

FALSE

122

Is the ascending limb of the loop thin or thick?

Thick

123

What leaves the ascending limb of the loop?

NaCl

124

T/F: The ascending limb of the loop has mitochondria?

True

125

The main function of the distal tube is

"fine tuning" of re-absorption/secretion

126

The loop of Henle creates a _______ and creates a ______ concentration gradient in the _____

counter-current exchangeNaCl concentration gradientmedula

127

What region of the heart is self-excitatory?

pacemaker

128

2 regulation mechanisms for the kidney

Local and systematic

129

Local control in the kidney takes care of

dilation of afferent arterioles

130

Afferent arterioles are

the vessels that bring blood to the kidney/glomerulus

131

Systemic controls involve

ADH/VasopressinRennin & other hormones

132

Hormones that increase water absorption

ADH and Aldosterone

133

What percent of re-absorption happens at the PCT

98%

134

What does ADH do in the kidney

it increases the number of aquaporins for more water retention

135

_____ allows rapid spread of AP in the heart

electrical continuity

136

APs in cardiac cells differ by ___ and ____

kineticsion channels involved

137

Acetylcholine is released to do what to the heart?

slow heart rate (increase permeability of K+; decrease perm of Ca+)

138

Parasympethic nerves do what?

release Ach to decrease pacemaker activity (to slow heart rate)

139

Sympathetic nerves do what?

release hormones (nor) epinephrine to increase heart rate

140

What does nor-epinephrine do for the heart

increases Na and Ca permeability (rises resting potential and APs are closer together)

141

How does the nervous system control the heart rate?

Influences resting potential of the pacemaker cells

142

The core function of the veins is to

STORE blood (walls very expandable)

143

What percent of O2 is conserved in Hb

75%

144

What are the efficient carriers for O2

Red blood cells

145

At a low PO2, the _____ reserves are released

oxygen

146

A high metabolic rate decreases ____, which means greater ____ release

pHO2

147

RBC production is stimulated by

low O2 content in tissues

148

Blood moves fast in what to maintain O2 and CO2 gradients

Capillaries

149

Direction of fluid depends on the balance between ___ and ___ pressure

blood and osmotic

150

Osmotic balance is important to prevent

extreme volume changes

151

PCT is the major site of

absorption

152

PCT regulates pH by

releasing H+ ions and taking in bicarbonate ions

153

T/F: the PCT contains many mitochondria because it performs active transport

True

154

What makes gases more soluble in blood

enzymes and proteins

155

The degree of urea in the collecting duct depends on the

concentration gradient

156

What volume of fluid is reabsorbed in the kidney/nephron by the PCT?

about 98%

157

Mutated disfunctional aquaporin leads to

diabetes insipidus

158

Atrial naturic peptide is an ___ process and is released in ____ BP

inihibitinghigh BP

159

Counter-current exchange creates _____ osmotic gradients

steep

160

Describe the Rennin-Angitensin-Aldosterone (RAA) process

renin released from the kidney -> activates Angiotensin in blood -> aldosterone released from adrenal cortex

161

RAA process happens when BP is ___ and there is ____ osmilarity to ____ blood volume

lowhigh osmilarityincrease

162

ADH and aldosterone ___ BP

increase

163

If the process just stops at the activation of angiostensin, ____ is stimulated

thirst

164

Aldosterone stimulate salt _____

re-absorption

165

In an EKG chart what do P Q R S and T each stand for?

P= depolarization/contraction of atriaQ,R,S = depolarization of ventriclesT=relaxation/re-polarization of ventricles

166

In the end, blood leaves the kidney through ___ capillaries

peritubular

167

Describe the travel of urine from the kindey to outside

kidney releases urine into the ureter -> urinary bladder -> out through urethra

168

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) depends on

the blood supply to the kidney

169

What does the auto-regulatory system do for the kidney

make sure the supply and BP are at good levels

170

Deoxygenated blood flows to where

Gas exchange organs of the body

171

Main physical component of Arteries and arterioles

Elastic fibers

172

What vessel controls distribution to capillary beds

Arterioles

173

What alters diameter/resistance to blood flow?

Precapillary sphicters

174

Identity of molecules in blood depends on

Concentration gradientsPermeability

175

How does the blood-brain barrier relate to capillaries

Lack of pores in membraneOnly lipid soluble

176

What vessels return fluid to major vein to the heart

Lymphatic

177

Functions Renal corpuscle = filtrationRenal tubule= absorptionCollecting duct= urine

0

178

Collecting ducts start at __, pass through ___, empty into ____

CortexMedullaUreter

179

Glomeruli are located in

The cortex

180

Renal tubes loop through the

Medulla

181

Bottom part of the ascending limb is thin or thick?

Thin

182

Loop of Henle does what to the medula?

Establishes an external concentration gradient

183

Water leaves the collecting duct via ______

Osmosis

184

When water leaves the CD, what happens to urine

It becomes more concentrated

185

T/F: collecting duct is highly permeable to urea at the bottom

FALSE only slightly permeable

186

CD passes through ____ osmolarity of the medulla, created by the ____

IncreasingLoop of Henle

187

Filtration requires

Adequate blood pressure

188

Angiotensin increases BP by effects on

Vessels and fluid intake