Flashcards in The Holocaust Deck (49):
When was the truth of the Holocaust revealed?
As US is approaching Germany, following Operation Battle of Bulge
Did US know the Holocaust was going on?
Yes, but unofficially.
Describe how Anti-Semitism was not only a German thing.
-Jews lived in every country in Europe, as well as US
-Everywhere they live, they faces Anti-Semitism, some level of discrimination.
-Anti-Semitism-Not a German thing, kind of prejudice was everywhere
How was Judaism labeled as an ethnic subculture by sociologists?
By the language, religious tactics, dress, Shtetls (towns). Also, there was discussion about the differences in the authentic Jewish culture versus the commercial Jewish culture.
What are the Jewish languages and where are they spoken.
-Yiddish is casual slang language on the streets to talk to one another, Hebrew is formal language of the temple.
What is a ghetto?
it is an ethnic community of a group of people living in an area
Why did Jews live in ghettos?
to have something familiar for a lifestyle and be around people like you, it is also safer from Anti-Semitism so there will be
-Jews dont have machinery on Sabbath, so they walk to temple together which is near their neighborhood
What is the religious makeup of Germany at the time?
-Germany is majorly Christian
-Northern is Lutheran
-Southern is Catholic
How did dress separate Germans and Jews in Germany?
Jews wear yamakas and shoals, the boys also have curly sideburns, also have tassels coming out of back of pants, these dress differences made them easy targets.
Why did the Holocaust exist?
Part is historical, economic, and political.
Describe the Anti-Semitic conspiracy theory in Rome.
-They were driven out of middle east by the Romans
-Goes back to 2nd century in Rome, Constantine adopts Christianity, he calls it official religion of Roman empire, previously was Prolifiistic, when he adopts this, that means all other religions are all banned, Jews in Roman Empire could either convert, leave, or get killed, big reason why many Jews are in Eastern Europe such as Poland.
-Jews were welcomed into Poland because they were asked to tolerate this.
Describe the Anti-Semitic conspiracy theory in Spain.
Jews were driven out of Spain during the Spanish Inquisition.
What is the Anti-Semitic Conspiracy theory about God's covenant?
Jews have a covenant with God, Christians argue they have the pact, same with Muslims, people are killing each other over it without realizing it is the same God among all religions.
What is the Anti-Semitic Conspiracy theory about Jesus Christ's death?
going back to Easter Trdiuum, Jews get the blame for Christ’s crucifixion, Judas gets paid the 30 pieces of silver by Jews, Pontius Pilate arrests him who is Roman and beats him and will eventually kill him, he questions him, arrested by saying he is King of Jews, mocking him with Crown of Thorns, people have said it but Jesus never said it, he asks people a choice of crucifying him of Barrabas. Barrabas is real criminal vs. Jesus. He gives people a choice of who to set free, and Jews tell him to free Barrabas, he washes his hands and claims it is not on him, so Jews will get the blame. The reality is he died for our sin, has nothing to do with the Jews, this was really his destiny
What is the Anti-Semitic conspiracy theory about economic rights and banking?
Constantine forbade Christians from being bankers. He wanted people to give to those in need, they said banking is a sin, but you need it which was Jews argument, by Middle Ages, Church age was all gone, does mean that Jews control some money of the society, fast forward to Great Depression, people who have money like Jews are getting blamed because they were bankers who were in charge of this.
What was the reason for the stereotyping?
Explain why numerical minority was a reason for the Holocaust.
in Germany, Jews are a minority, if they are majority, Holocaust never happens, Hitler never comes to power, either, easy target because of low numbers to be able to stop them.
How were Jews seen as a separate race of people in Germany?
lots of race theory, bastardizing Darwin, taking the theory and applying it to the human race, with Americans vs. Japs, Germans vs. Jews, whole study of racial makeup done based on body parts and tell if they will be a criminal based on facial makeup.
What was Hilter's philosophy on the Jewish population?
Jews will be sub-human because they are so low on the scale.
What was Hitler's theory for having the Holocaust?
-Used the anti-Jewish sentiment as a political tool (scapegoating), if this never happened, he would never come to power.
-Jews are reason they lost everything, not true, but he knows he can take ethnic minority and blame it on them.
Why did Hitler choose the Jews to go against?
They had some power, but not enough to do much about it, and it had been going on for awhile now.
Who was Karl Lueger?
Vienna, Austria mayor
What was the argument about Hitler being Jewish?
if his grandmother and housekeeper who was Jewish had an affair, but highly improbable, but by German law he wasn't Jewish
What was the German rule for legally being Jewish?
3/4 grandparents had to be Jews, if you were married to a Jew, 2/4 grandparents and Jewish community
What were Aryans?
"The Master Race" that Hilter accepted with blonde hair and blue eyes.
Why did the German people accept the Holocaust?
-Desperation-desparate people do desparate things
-Anger of Versailles
-become target of anger
-Inability of the Weimar
-Chaos-makes people very uncomfortable
-Appeal to poor and young
How did the Holocaust try to appeal to the poor and young in Germany?
propaganda campaign, uses poor because they are more desperate, they have no hope, so they tend to be more racist and take pride in race and go against Jews, young was trusting authority in doing this, and start ‘em young ideas. Kids won't question adults about the truth. Whatever authority is saying is the Truth.
Why did Hitler meet with Karl Lueger?
Hitler isn't the first to do this, was sort of introduced to this at his art school in Vienna, he met with the mayor, Austria also had a large Jew population, and he learned that he could do this to get to power.
What was the first Concentration Camp and when did it open?
Dachau in 1933
How were Jewish shops boycotted?
part of it is economic and social, social isolation, need to buy groceries each day and money and conversation is paid, starts knowing the customers well and then during the Depression, customer loses job, asks for line of credit,
Did the Germans fight for the Jews at all?
If they dont have a relationship, they do not care, if it is personal, the Germans do fight for the Jews.
When were Nuremberg Laws created?
What are Nuremberg Laws?
revoked citizenship rights of German Jews, many have lived there for a while, they took away legal representation rights and if they are not citizens, you can do whatever they want to the Jews. It was political isolation
What eventually happened to the German economy
It was Aryanization
When was the German economy Aryanized?
When were identification patches created?
When was Kristallnacht?
Nov 9, 1938
Describe the steps of taking Jews from homes to ghettos to camps.
-take them out of homes/businesses, they know where they are
-placed into restricted areas, made them wear Star of David
-once in ghetto, easy to be deported, Dachau was opened early as concentration camp and work them to death, no food and hard work
-put them in cattle cars on train from ghettos to these camps, pushed together in these cars.
What happened on Kristallnacht?
night where the Nazis took out Jewish community with shootings, fightings in the streets, and even the public watched this.
What is Einsatzgruppen?
Mobile killing units were made in 1941, it began the final solution, which was genocide
Who was put in charge of death camps?
Describe a concentration camp.
-Hardly any food
-Harsh people there
-Wore striped pajamas
Did Germans worry about the concentration camps?
People are willing to accept this because it is not the Germans, no worries, they are irrelevant, so it is none of their business. But if they came for them, they would worry about it.
How did US respond to the camps?
-Very little, but US wanted to bomb the camps, idea was to kill Jews, but we will also save lots of Jewish lives, willing to sacrifice few to save many, Roosevelt said no, it is not our problem.
Where did US find lots of evidence of the concentration camps?
eyewitness testimony in 1941
Why did the US not worry about the camps too much?
-US should have done more, but didn't because it was a German thing, none of our business, because people do not want a war and be involved with war yet. Fastest way to end Holocaust is to end the war. Camps have nothing to do with the war effort, it wont help us win any faster, first you need to stop Hitler and then stop the war and Holocaust.
What were the results of this genocide?
-6 million Jews died
-5-6 million others
Describe the lie of the gates of Auschwitz.
It says "work will make you free"-try to stop Jews from complaining.