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Flashcards in The Hypothalamus Deck (17):

What is the hypothalamus

It is funnel shaped, and obliquely oriented. At the end of the funnel we find the hypophysis.


What are the borders of the hypothalamus

Anteriorly : the lamina terminalis, anterior commisure
Posteriorly: the tegmentum
Inferior: infundibulim and optic chiasm
Superiorly: sulcus terminalis, and hypothalamic sulcus


The posterior border of the hypothalamus has which structures near it

The mammilary bodies and the tuber cinereum.


What are the visible aspects of the base of the brain of the hypothalamus

Mammilary bodies, tuber cinereum, infundibulim


The hypothalamus is surrounded by which group of blood vessels

The circle of willis


Which systems does the hypothalamus contribute to

The autonomic nervous system
The endocrine system
The limbic system


What are the divisions of the hypothalamus in the coronal plane

The periventricular region
The medial region
The lateral region. Note that the medial and lateral region are separated by a bundle of white matter consisting of the column of the fornix and the mammilothalamic tract


What are the divisions of the hypothalamus when divided in the saggital plane

The anterior suprachiasmatic region.
The middle tuberal region
The posterior mammilary region.


What are the 2 regions of the hypothalamus related to feeding

The lateral hypothalmic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus


Go to slide from 12



What are the autonomic functions of the anterior and posterior hypothalamus

The anterior hypothalamus has an excitatory effect of the parasympathetic system.
The posterior hypothalamus has an excitatory effect on the sympathetic system


What is the limbic system? What is its function? How does it use its mammilothalamic tract and mammilotegemental tract?

It is our mammalian brain (mating/olfaction) . It is made of the limbic lobe (which it on the border of the cortex), the dentate gyrus, the hippocampal formation, the anterior nuclei of the thalamus, and the mammilary body of the hypothalamus.
The mammilothalamic tract allows the hippocampus to project to the anterior nuclei of the thalamus.
The mammilotegemental tract it receives information from the reticular formation


What is the circuit of Papez

When information goes from the entorhinal cortex to hippocampus to mammilary body to anterior nucleus of thalamus to cingulate gyrus to parahippocampal gyrus back to the entorhinal cortex.


Where is the entorhinal cortex

Close to the hippocampus, at the level of the parahippocampal gyrus. It receives information from the associative areas of the cortex


What are the neural and blood borne inputs of the hypothalamus

Ascending pathways from visceral and somatic sources
Hippocampus (fornix)
Septal Area and orbitofrontal cortex (medial forebrain bundle, MFB)
Primary olfactory cortex (MFB)
Mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus
Tegmental Nuclei
Raphe Nuclei (MFB)
Locus Ceruleus Amigdala ( stria (MFB) terminalis , ventral amigdalofugal pathway) Retina: medial root of the optic tract
BLOOD BORNE: hormones, temperature, osmolarity


What are the NeuroEndocrine and neural outputs from the hypothalamus

NeuroEndocrine is to the pituitary gland
Neural is : go to slide 38


Hypothalamic syndromes can cause which 3 kinds of disorders

Endocrine and metabolic disorders.
Vegetative disorders.
Mood disorders