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Flashcards in The Integumentary System Deck (65)
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1

Order of the layers of the cutaneous membrane?

Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

2

The tissue under the skin is called the

hypodermis or subcutaneous layer

3

As cells are pushed from the deeper portion of the epidermis toward the surface,

they die

4

The layer of the epidermis at the surface is the

stratum corneum

5

Thick skin can be found on the

palms

6

The skin is also called the

cutaneous membrane

7

The skin is defined by the thickness of the

epidermis

8

An epidermal layer that produces large amounts of keratin is the

stratum granulosum

9

The primary mode of heat loss from the body is

radiation

10

In order for bacteria on the skin to cause an infection in the skin, they must

survive the bactericidal components of sebum, avoid being flushed from the surface of the skin by sweat, penetrate the stratum corneum, and escape the Langerhans'cells

11

Epidermal cells are supplied with nutrients from blood vessels in the

dermis

12

Drugs suspended in ______ or ________ can penetrate the epidermis

sebum; water

13

Functions of the skin include

regulating body temperature

14

An individual with excessive epidermal shedding on the scalp may be prone to develop this

dandruff

15

In albinism, ______ is lacking

melanin

16

The skin may turn orange as a result of ______ buildup

melanin

17

The pigment melanin:

is produced by cells called melanocytes and is found in higher concentration in individuals with darker skin and protects DNA from the damaging effects of UV radiation

18

The most important factor in skin color is

genetic factors

19

Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet light

can stimulate the production of melanin

20

When a person becomes ¨pale¨, what is the physiologic basis?

The blood supply to the skin decreases

21

Which of the following is a function of the integumentary system that aids the endocrine system?

synthesis of vitamin D

22

Epidermal cells synthesize this vitamin when exposed to sunlight

vitamin D3

23

The dermis is composed largely of

dense irregular connective tissue

24

When smooth muscles in the walls of dermal blood vessels contract,

body heat is conserved

25

The layer of the skin that provides thermoregulation via changing blood flow is the

dermis

26

Folds of the dermis that cause fingerprints are called

dermal papillae

27

Nerve fibers in the skin are associated with

smooth muscles, blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, and hair follicles

28

When the body is overheated, the skin responds by

increasing blood flow to the dermis

29

The subcutaneous layer is made of

loose connective and adipose tissues

30

The hypodermis contains mostly

adipose tissue

31

Injections made under the skin are called

hypodermal injections

32

Shafts of hair are made by

dead epidermal cells

33

When the arrector pili muscles contract,

¨goose bumps¨ are formed

34

Accessory structures of the skin include

hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, sebaceous glands, apocrine sweat glands

35

Temporary increases in hair loss can result from

drugs, dietary factors, radiation, fever

36

Glands that are located in the ear canal are called

ceruminous glands

37

Perspiration produced by apocrine sweat glands

is limited to the hair follicles of the axilla, nipples, and groin

38

The condition that results from clogged sebaceous glands is

acne

39

Eccrine sweat glands

respond primarily to elevated body temperature

40

Sweat glands help to cool the body by

evaporation

41

Eccrine and sebaceous glands differ in

type of secretion, material secreted, location in the body, their association with hair follicles

42

The glands that develop at puberty are

apocrine glands

43

Specialized sweat glands that produce milk are called

mammary glands

44

The pale crescent area of the nail is called the

lunula

45

The fold of the stratum corneum over the base of the nail is called the

cuticle

46

A ¨rug burn¨ is an example of an

abrasion

47

The type of burn that may require a skin graft is a

third-degree burn

48

A burn that penetrates the epidermis and part of the dermis is classified as a

second-degree burn

49

Why would an elderly person be more prone to skin infections than a younger person?

Skin repairs take longer in the elderly, the epidermis is thinner in the elderly, there are fewer macrophages in the skin of the elderly, the blood supply to the dermis is reduced in the skin of the elderly

50

A burn that involves only the epidermis, such as mild sunburn, is classified as

first degree

51

This type of burn appears inflamed and tender but has no blisters

first-degree burn

52

The most severe type of skin cancer is most likely to develop from

melanocytes

53

The deepest layer in the epidermis is the cells of the stratum _______.

germinativum

54

The substance that gives the skin its waterproofing ability is _______.

keratin

55

The protein that contributes to many of the skin protective qualities is called ______.

keratin

56

_________ is a pigment found in vegetables that can make skin appear orange or yellow.

carotene

57

Melanin serves to protects cells under the epidermis from _______.

UV light

58

Exposure to _______ radiation from the sun has the effect of increasing melanin production in the skin.

UV

59

The ______ layer of the skin contains bundles of collagen fibers and elastin and is responsible for the strength of the skin.

reticular

60

Body temperature normally remains close to ______ degrees Fahrenheit.

98.6

61

The thermostat for the body is the _____.

hypothalamus

62

The _______ glands function as scent glands.

apocrine

63

The nail _____ covers the nail bed.

body

64

A thickened area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface is called a _________.

keloid

65

_______ are accumulations of fluid within the epidermis or between the epidermis and the dermis.

blisters