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Flashcards in The Kidneys Deck (64):
0

Where are the kidneys

Below lungs
Behind stomach
Towards back

1

How large are kidneys

7-12cm length
200-400g = 0.5% body mass

2

What do kidneys do

Production of urine absorbing nutrients we dont want to excrete

3

Label urinary system

Label kidney

4

Function of: vena cava

Main vein returning blood to the heart

5

Function of: renal vein

Takes 'cleaned' blood away from kidneys

6

Function of: aorta

Main artery supplying oxygenated blood to body

7

Function of: renal artery

Brings blood containing 'waste' to the kidneys

8

Function of: urethra

Carries urine from bladder to exterior

9

Function of: ureters

Carry urine to the bladder from the kidneys

10

Function of: bladder

Muscular sac that stores urine (~700cm(cb))

11

Function of: sphincter muscle

Keeps bladder closed

12

Function of: medulla

Lighter middle layer of kidney

13

Function of: pelvis

Central cavity which collects urine

14

Function of: cortex

Darker outer layer

15

Function of: nephron

Filtration unit (where urine is produced)

16

Kidneys excrete the same waste products as sweat just in different quantities and proportions

Urea
Minerals (ions/salt)
Water

17

The main function of the kidney is to get rid of ... Such a ... Extra ... And extra ...

Waste
Urea
Water
Salt

18

Dirty blood has urea, proteins, calls, glucose, amino acids, salt and water
But clean blood has

Everything but urea and only some salt and water after leaving the kidney

19

A person should only excrete through urine:

Urea, some salt and some water, however diabetics would excrete glucose

20

Effects on urine composition when drinking water

Blood volume increases
Goes through kidneys
Urine volume increases
Blood volume decreases

21

Effects on urine composition when thirsty

Blood volume decreases
Goes through kidneys
Urine volume decrease
Blood volume is maintained

22

Effects on urine composition when eating salt (crips)

Blood solute concentration increases
Goes through kidneys
Urine volume decreases
Water kept in blood

23

Why do we need to excrete urea

As it is a waste product from our blood with no nutrients
Ammonia and urea is a toxic build up

24

Why does the amount of water in a cell need to be regulated

Water and salt levels need to remain the same as cells cannot work properly for chemical reactions to occur (too little water) and not efficient enough (too much water)
AKA osmoregulation

25

Step 1: ultrafiltration
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

-small molecules are filtered out of the blood
-large molecules stay in the blood
-high pressure of blood
-gaps in the walls of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

26

Step 2: selective reabsorption
Proximal convoluted tubule and blood stream

-useful molecules are re-absorbed back into the bloodstream by active transport
-some water moves back into blood by osmosis
-urea stays in the filtrate

27

Step 3: adjusting salt concentration
Loop of Henlé

-by taking or adding more salt to change blood salt concentration

28

Step 4: adjusting the PH, salt and water concentration
Distal convoluted tubule

FINISH THIS

29

Step 5: adjusting water concentration
Collecting duct

FINISH THIS

30

Variable for negative feedback would be

Low/high water concentration in blood

31

Negative feedback for low water concentration in blood
Ie
Stimulus
Receptor/sensor
Integrator/control centre
Effector
Response
Negative feedback

-low water concentration in blood (high solute)
-osmo-receptors in hypothalamus
-hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland to release ADH/thirst centre in hypothalamus
-ADH works on collecting ducts which become more permeable to water/drinking
-more water reabsorbed into blood thus less urine is produced/water concentration in blood increases
-as water concentration increases --> ADH secretion stops

32

Negative feedback when high water concentration in blood

-high water concentration in blood (low solute)
-osmo receptors in hypothalamus
-hypothalamus does not stimulate pituitary gland to release ADH
-collecting ducts become less permeable to water
-less water is reabsorbed into blood, more urine is produced
-water concentration decreases

33

Why does the body need amino acids

To be taken into the bloodstream via the ileum and transported into cells that need to build new proteins

34

What happens to the protein we eat in the digestive system

Broken down into amino acids with help from pepsin and trypsin (enzymes) in the stomach and small intestine respectively

35

What happens to the excess amino acids in the blood that the body does not need

Broken down or destroyed

36

The first thing the liver does with excess amino acids is to deaminate them. What molecules are formed as a result of this

Ammonia
Ketoacid
Called deamination

37

Why does ammonia have to be turned into urea

As ammonia is very poisonous and urea is less toxic

38

Where does the urea go after it has been made in the liver

Carried from the liver by blood in hepatic vein to heart to lungs and back to heart, leaves heart by aorta and enters kidneys via renal artery which gets rid of it through urine via ureters temporarily stored in bladder and leaves body by urethra

39

What happens to useful amino acids

Taken up by body cells and used to build new proteins

40

Function of: glomerulus

Network of capillaries in Bowman's capsule

41

Function of: Bowman's capsule

Where filtrate is kept

42

Function of: ultrafiltration

Small molecules filtered out of blood, large molecules stay in it

43

Function of: proximal convoluted tubule

Where selective reabsorption takes place

44

Function of: selective reabsorption

Useful molecules reabsorbed back into bloodstream by active transport, water by osmosis

45

Function of: loop of Henlé

Adjusting salt concentration

46

Steak to urine:
1) the steak is eaten and enters the ...
2) protein in the steak is broken down into ... With the help of the enzymes ... And ... This happens in the ... And ... Respectively
3) amino acids are absorbed into the ... In the small intestine (ileum)
4) useful amino acids are taken up by body cells and used to build new ...
5) ... Amino acids are transported to the liver
6) in the liver, excess amino acids are broken down into ... + ...
7) ammonia is converted into ...
8) urea leaves the liver in the hepatic vein and travels to the ... (And from there to the lungs and back to the heart)
9) urea leaves heart in the ... And enters the ... Via the renal ...
10) urea us filtered out if the blood in the ... Into urine
11) urine leaves the kidney via the ... Is temporarily stored in the ... And leaves the body via the ...

Digestive system
Amino acids
Pepsin
Trypsin
Stomach
Small intestine
Bloodstream
Cells
Proteins
Excess
Liver
Excess
Ammonia
Keto acid
Urea
Heart
Aorta
Kidneys
Artery
Kidney
Ureters
Bladder
Urethra

47

Why is kidney failure a threat to life

-build up of urea in the body (toxic)
-water and salt not balanced which can lead to osmotic problems

48

What can cause kidney failure

-infectious diseases
-tumours
-accidents
-diabetes

49

How can kidney failure be treated

Dialysis or kidney transplant

50

What should people with kidney problems eat

Less protein
Monitor water and sugar levels

51

Principle of dialysis is the same as a kidney

Dirty blood
Dialysis machine
Clean blood + waste

52

Be able to label a dialysis machine

Copy from biology folder

53

1) dialysis fluid contains:
2) ... blood enters the dialysis machine
3) urea + excess salt + excess water diffuse through ... Membrane into dialysis fluid
4) dialysis fluid containing urea is ... As waste while clean blood leaves the dialysis machine and ... To the body

1) no urea, salt, amino acids, glucose + water in normal blood concentration
2) dirty
3) a semi - permeable
4) discarded, travels back

54

A patient with kidney failure will soon die unless there is a way to rid the body of the ... And excess ... A dialysis machine provides ... Kidney for the sufferers of kidney failure

Urea
Salt
An artificial

55

... Is drawn from a vein in the body and enters the dialysis machine. The blood flows through a dialysis ... Which is ... It has in it pores which will allow small particles to pass through, like ..., ..., ..., ..., and amino acids but not large particles like ... Or ...

Blood
Membrane
Semi-permeable
Salt
Water
Urea
Glucose
Proteins
Blood cells

56

Surrounding the membrane is ... This contains useful molecules which should be in the blood plasma (eg ..., ... And some salt), in the correct concentrations. There is no ... In the dialysis fluid.

Dialysis fluid
Glucose
Amino acids
Urea

57

The urea moves from the blood to the dialysis fluid by ... There is no ... Diffusion of glucose and amino acids from the blood to the dialysis fluid.

Diffusion
Net

58

Excess ... Diffuses out of the ... Keeping it at the right levels. Osmoregulation occurs in much the same way. If there is too ... Water in the blood it will enter the dialysis fluid by ... The reverse occurs if the blood is too ... The blood us kept at the correct ... While it passes through the machine. The blood then returns to the body.

Salt
Blood
Much
Osmosis
Concentrated
Temperature

59

A dialysis patient needs to be careful what they ... And ... Too much ... And protein between dialysis treatments can cause problems. Also the amount of ... Which may be taken is very restricted as the body has mo way of getting rid of it.

eat
Drink
Salt
Protein
Water

60

Disadvantages of dialysis

-regular sessions (2/3 times a week)
-can be from 4-10 hours
-restrictions in food and drink
-expensive long term

61

Advantages in dialysis

-more readily available
-can be done over many years
-no danger of rejection
-no need to take immunosuppressive drugs

62

Advantages for transplant

-no dialysis sessions
-can eat and drink normally and lead normal life
-after surgery, relatively low cost

63

Disadvantages for transplant

-requires suitable organ donor (tissue match)
-transplants don't last for life (new transplant needed every 10 years)
-danger of rejection (regular check-ups needed)
-need to take immunosuppressive drugs therefore risk of recurrent infection