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A Level Biology - Unit5 > The Nervous System + Brain > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Nervous System + Brain Deck (30):
1

How many systems is the mammalian nervous system structurally made up of? What are they?

2 systems
Central Nervous system
Peripheral Nervous system

2

What does the Central Nervous System consist of?

Brain and spinal cord

3

What does the Peripheral Nervous System consist of?

All of the neurones that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. (sensory, motor and relay neurones)

4

How many systems is the mammalian nervous system functionally made up of? What are they?

2 systems
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system

5

What is the difference between somatic and autonomic nervous systems?

Somatic- under conscious control (voluntary)
Autonomic- Under subconscious control (involuntary)

6

What is the autonomic nervous system further divided into?

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.

7

What is the sympathetic nervous system responsible for?

Outcomes are an increase in activity
Fight or flight responses

8

What is the parasympathetic nervous system responsible for?

Outcomes are a decrease in activity
Relaxing responses

9

Describe the axon, neurotransmitter and effector in the somatic nervous system.

Axon- heavily myelinated
Neurotransmitter- Acetylcholine
Effector- skeletal muscle

10

Describe the axon, neurotransmitter and effector in the autonomic nervous system (symapthetic)

Axon- lightly myelinated
Neurotransmitter- noradrenaline
Effector- Smooth muscle, glands, cardiac muscle

11

Describe the axon, neurotransmitter and effector in the autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic)

Axon- lightly myelinated
Neurotransmitter- Acetylcholine
Effector- smooth muscle, glands, cardiac muscle

12

What is the brain protected by?

The skull and protective membranes called meninges.

13

What are the 5 main areas of the brain?

Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata
Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland

14

What does the cerebrum control?

Voluntary actions like memory, learning, personality and conscious thought

15

What does the cerebellum control?

Unconscious functions such as posture, balance and non-voluntary movements

16

What does the medulla oblongata control?

Heart rate and breathing rate.

17

What does the hypothalamus control?

Regulates temperature and water balance

18

What does the pituitary gland control?

Stores and releases hormones that regulate many body functions.

19

What are the three main ways of studying the brain in order to understand its function?

Dissections and autopsies
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Computerised tomography (CT) scans

20

Why is the cerebrum highly convoluted?

To have an increased surface area.
This increases its capacity for complex activity.

21

What are the two halves of the cerebrum called?

Cerebral hemispheres

22

What is the outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres called?

Cerebral cortex

23

What kind of functions occur in the cerebral cortex?

Reasoning and decision-making

24

What is the main region in the brain that controls movement?

The primary motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe

25

Which side of the brain receives impulses from the right and left side of the body?

Right side of body- Left hemisphere of brain
Left side of body- Right hemisphere of brain

26

If someone experiences jerky and uncoordinated movement, what part of the brain is damaged?

The cerebellum

27

The hypothalamus has..............centers. One for the ............nervous system and one for the ...............nervous system.

Two
Parasympathetic
Sympathetic

28

What are the three main functions of the hypothalamus?

Control of complex behavior (sleeping, aggression)
Control of blood plasma composition
Producing hormones

29

Where is the pituitary gland?

At the base of the hypothalamus.

30

What are the two sections of the pituitary gland?
What is their role?

Anterior pituitary- produces 6 hormones
Posterior pituitary- stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus