The pleura and the lungs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The pleura and the lungs Deck (28):
1

Left pleural cavity

Contains left lunf

2

Right pleural cavity

Contains right lung

3

Mediastinum

Space between the 2 pleural cavities

Contains trachea, heart, oesophagus, blood vessels, nerves

4

Development of the lungs

4-6 week old embryo the respiratory system begins to develop from endoderm

Endodermal out pouches to form lung buds

Rapid division of the airways occurs

Lungs push their way out into the primitive thoracic cavity and take the visceral pleura with them

5

Fluid in the lungs prior to birth

Lots of fluid in the lungs, some absorbed via cap and lymph and some squeezed out by birth canal or sucked out after birth

6

Visceral pleura

Closely adheres to the lungs

Creates a smooth and slippery surface

Connects to the parietal pleura and the hilum/ root of the lung

7

Parietal pleura

Lines the internal aspect od the thoracic wall

Divided into:
- costal (internal rib cage)
- mediastinal (lateral wall and mediastinum)
- diaphragmatic (superior diaphragm)
- cervical (cervical region)

8

Pleural cavity

Space between the 2 layers of pleura

Contains a thin layer of serous fluid which allows the pleurae to slide against each other

Surface tension of the serous fluid provides cohesion to help lungs to be held against thoracic wall

9

Recesses

Excess space in the pleural cavity

10

Parietal pleura innervation

Cervical- 1st intercostal nerve
Costal- intercostal nerves
Mediastinal- phrenic
Diaphragmatic- lower intercostals and phrenic nerves

11

Visceral pleura innervation

Autonomic from pulmonary plexuses

12

Right lung

Three lobes: superior, middle, inferior

Two fissures: horizontal, oblique

Larger and heavier, shorter and wider

13

Left lung

Two lobes: superior, inferior

One fissure: oblique

Cardiac notch and lingula

14

Hilum/ root of lungs

Main bronchus
Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary veins
Bronchial arteries and veins
Pulmonary plexus of nerves
Lymph vessels and nodes

15

Bronchial circulation

Bronchial arteries supply oxygen/ nutrients to lung and visceral pleura

Left arteries branch from descending aorta

Right arteries branch from intercostal arteries

Bronchial veins terminate in the azygos vein

16

Respiratory tree

Trachea ->
Primary bronchi (main) ->
Secondary bronchi (lobar) ->
Tertiary bronchi (segmental) ->
Bronchioles ->
Alveolar sacs ->
Alveoli

17

Trachea

Flexible tube- from larynx, from C6 to T4/5
Composed of c-shaped cartilage
Posteriorly- trachealis muscle
Birfucates at level of sternal angle
Lined by mucus membrane and cilia

18

Carina

Internal point of trachea bifurcation

19

Primary bronchi

One for each lung
Passing into ling at root
Right main bronchus wider, shorter and runs more vertically
Contains cartilage

20

Secondary bronchi

Supply lobes
3 in right lung
2 in left lung

21

Tertiary bronchi

Supplies a bronchopulmonary segment

22

Bronchopulmonary segment

Largest subdivision of a lobe

Supplied by a single tertiary bronchus

Receives a single branch of the pulmonary artery

Separated by connective tissue

Surgically resectable/ removable in isolation

23

Bronchioles

20-25 generations of conducting bronchioles

No cartilage in walls

Terminal bronchiole gives rise to several generations of respiratory bronchioles

Respiratory bronchioles characterised by out pockets of alveoli

24

Alveoli

Alveolar ducts elongated airways lined by alveoli which lead to alveolar sacs

Each alveolus surrounded by capillaries

Type 1 and type 2 pneumocytes

25

Innervation of the lung

Sympathetic and parasympathetic supply

26

Sympathetic supply to the lung

Bronchial musculature dilates

Pulmonary vasculature constricts

27

Parasympathetic supply to the lungs

Bronchial musculature constricts

Pulmonary musculature dilates

28

Lymph drainage of the lungs

Towards the hilum via bronchopulmonary nodes then tracheobronchial nodes and then paratracheal nodes