The Posterior Abdominal Wall & Diaphragm Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > The Posterior Abdominal Wall & Diaphragm > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Posterior Abdominal Wall & Diaphragm Deck (51):
1

the kidneys are located ___ on the ___ wall in the paravertebral gutters between the vertebrae levels ___

retroperitoneally (primary)
posterior abdominal
T12 - L3

2

the right kidney lies slightly ___ than the left kidney because of the ___

lower
large size of the right lobe of the liver

3

with contraction of the diaphragm during respiration, both kidneys move vertically ___ as much as ___ cm

downwards
2.5

4

each kidney has dimensions which are approximately ___ cm x ___ cm x ___ cm

12
6
3

5

each kidney's lateral sides are ___ in shape

their medial sides are ___ in shape & contain a vertical slit called the ___ which leads into a large space called the ___

this space contains 4 things: ___

convex

concave
hilum
renal sinus

renal pelvis
calyces
renal vessels
fat

6

the usual order of structures within the hilum from anterior to posterior are: ___

renal vein
renal artery
ureter
(VAU)

7

coverings of the kidney:
fibrous capsule:

closely applied to the ___ & passes over the ___ to line the ___

kidney
edges of the hilum
renal sinus

8

coverings of the kidney:
perirenal fat:

encloses both the ___ & the ___

continuous at the ___ w/ the ___ in the ___

kidneys
suprarenal glands

hilum
fat
renal sinus

9

coverings of the kidney:
renal fascia:

the most ___ layer

encloses ___

important

everything else (kidneys, suprarenal glands, & perirenal fat)

10

coverings of the kidney:
pararenal fat:

lies ___

thicker ___ to the kidneys

external to the renal fascia

posterior

11

the suprarenal glands lie between the ___ & the ___

right suprarenal gland - ___ shaped

left suprarenal gland - ___ shaped

superomedial aspects of the kidneys
diaphragm

triangular

semilunar

12

the ureters descend ___ on the surface of the ___ msucles

they cross into the ___ over the bifurcation of the ___ arteries in front of the ___ joints

retroperitoneally
psoas major

pelvis
common iliac
sacroiliac

13

muscles of the posterior abdominal wall:
psoas major:

a ___ muscle located on the side of the ___ region of the ___

long
lumbar
vertebral column

14

muscles of the posterior abdominal wall:
iliacus:

a ___ muscle inferior to the ___

flat, triangular
quadratus lumborum muscle

15

muscles of the posterior abdominal wall:
psoas minor:

a ___ muscle which is located anterior to the ___

long, slender
psoas major muscle

16

muscles of the posterior abdominal wall:
quadratus lumborum:

a ___ muscle superior to the ___ & posterior to the ___

quadrilateral shaped
iliacus muscle
psoas major muscle

17

diaphragm:

a ___ sheet intervening between the ___ & ___

its muscles are arranged around a ___

it is divided into three portions according to the origins of its ___: ___

fibromuscular
thoracic & abdominal cavities

central tendon

musculature
- sternal portion
- costal portion
- lumbar portion

18

diaphragm:
sternal portion

from the posterior surface of the xiphoid process

19

diaphragm:
costal portion

from ribs 7-12 & their costal cartilages

20

diaphragm:
lumbar portoin

from the crura & arcuate ligaments

21

crura:
right crus:

arises from the ___ & ___ from levels ___

its ___ fibers usually from a sling around the ___ at the ___

sides of the bodies
intervertebral discs
L1 - L3

muscular
esophagus
esophageal hiatus

22

crura:
left crus:

arises from the ___ of levels ___ & the ___

it usually does not contribute to the ___

sides of the bodies
L1 & L2
intervening disc

sling around the esophagus

23

the arcuate ligaments:

the medial arcuate ligaments are actually ___ covering the ___ of the ___ muscles

they extend from the ___ to the ___

thickened fascia
upper margin
psoas major

body of L2
transverse processes of L1

24

the arcuate ligaments:

the lateral arcuate ligaments are ___ covering the ___ of the ___ muscle

they extend from the ___ to the ___

thickened fascia
upper surfae
quadratus lumborum

transverse process of L1
lower border of the 12th rib

25

the main openings of the diaphragm & corresponding spinal cord levels (3)

permit structures to pass between the ___ & the ___

caval openings (T8)
esophageal hiatus (T10)
aortic hiatus (T12)

thorax
abdomen

26

openings of the diaphragm:
aortic hiatus (3)*

aorta
thoracic duct
azygous vein

27

openings of the diaphragm:
esophageal hiatus (3)

esophagus
right & left vagus nerves (vagal trunks)
esophageal branches of the left gastric vessels & lymphatics

28

openings of the diaphragm:
caval opening (2)

inferior vena cava
branches of the right phrenic nerve

29

openings of the diaphragm:
superior epigastric vessels:

descend through the ___, which is a small gap b/n the ___ & ___ origins of the diaphragm

sternocostal triangle
sternal
costal

30

openings of the diaphragm:
thoracic splanchnic nerves:

pierce the ___ of the diaphragm

crura

31

openings of the diaphragm:
left phrenic nerve:

pierces the ___ of the diaphragm

left dome

32

openings of the diaphragm:
sympathetic trunks:

descend behind the ___

medial arcuate ligaments

33

openings of the diaphragm:
subcostal nerves:

descend behind the ___

lateral arcuate ligaments

34

openings of the diaphragm:
other openings (5)

superior epigastric vessels
thoracic splanchnic nerves
left phrenic nerve
sympathetic trunks
subcostal nerves

35

blood supply of the diaphragm:
superior surface (3)

pericardiophrenic arteries (from internal thoracic artery)
musculophrenic arteries (from internal thoracic artery)
superior phrenic arteries (from thoracic aorta)

36

blood supply of the diaphragm:
inferior surface (1)*

inferior phrenic arteries (usually from abdominal aorta)

37

nerve supply of the diaphragm:

motor - the entire motor supply is from the ___ nerves (levels ___)

sensory (___ & ___):
- central portion - ___ nerves
- peripheral portions - ___ nerves

phrenic
C3, C4, C5

pain & proprioception
- phrenic
- lower intercostal & subcostal

38

referred pain from the diaphragm radiates to ___ different areas

pain from the ___ or ___, which is innervated by the ___ nerves, is referred to the shoulder region supplied by segments ___ of the spinal cord (the same levels of the cord giving origin to the ___ nerves)

irritation of the ___ regions of the diaphragm, which are innervated by the ___ nerves, radiates to the skin over the ___ margins of the ___ wall

central diaphragmatic pleura
diaphragmatic peritoneum
phrenic
C3 - C5
phrenic

peripheral
intercostal & subcostal
costal
anterolateral abdominal

39

the fascia of the posterior abdominal wall is part of a ___ layer of ___ fascia lying between the ___ & the ___

it is customary to name the fascia according to the ___

continuous
endoabdominal
parietal pertioneum
musculature of the abdominal wall

underlying muscles

40

examples of underlying muscles of fascia of posterior abdominal wall (4)

diaphragm - diaphragmatic fascia
transversus abdominus - transversalis fascia
psoas major - psoas fascia
quadratus lumborum - qudaratus lumborum fascia

41

nerves of the posterior abdominal wall:
the subcostal nerve:

___ nerve

the subcostal nerve is the ___ ramus of ___, which descends posterior to the ___ approximately 1cm inferior to the ___

landmark

ventral
T12
lateral arcuate ligament
12th rib

42

nerves of the posterior abdominal wall:
lumbar plexus:

the lumbar plexus is formed within the substance of the ___ muscle from the ___ rami of ___

its major branches & corresponding spinal cord levels(6)

psoas
ventral
L1 - L4

iliohypotastric (L1)
ilioinguinal (L1)
lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh (L2, L3)
femoral nerve (L2 - L4)
genitofemoral nerve (L1, L2)
obturator nerve (L2 - L4)

43

nerves of the posterior abdominal wall:
lumbar plexus:
iliohypogastric:

motor to the ___

sensor to the ___ & ___

abdominal muscles

upper buttocks
lower abdomen

44

nerves of the posterior abdominal wall:
lumbar plexus:
ilioinguinal:

passes out of the ___ but not the ___

motor to the ___

sensory to the ___ & ___

superficial inguinal ring
deep inguinal ring

abdominal muscles

labia majora or scrotum
adjacent medial thigh

45

nerves of the posterior abdominal wall:
lumbar plexus:
lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh:

passes under the ___ near the ___

sensory to the ___

inguinal ligament
ASIS

lateral thigh

46

nerves of the posterior abdominal wall:
lumbar plexus:
femoral nerve:

the ___ branch of the lumbar plexus

runs ___ in a groove b/n the ___ & the ___

enters the ___ beneath the ___ & lateral to the ___

largest

downward
psoas major
iliacus muscle

thigh
inguinal ligament
femoral sheath

47

nerves of the posterior abdominal wall:
lumbar plexus:
genitofemoral nerve:

emerges on the surface of the ___

its genital branch joins the ___ & is motor to the ___ & sensory to the ___

its femoral branch passes onto the ___ beneath the ___ on the surface of the ___ & is sensory to the ___ over the ___

psoas major muscle

spermatic cord or round ligament
cremaster muscle
scrotum or labia majora

thigh
inguinal ligament
femoral artery
skin
femoral triangle

48

nerves of the posterior abdominal wall:
lumbar plexus:
obturator nerve:

appears at the medial border of the ___ superficial to the ___

it passes over the ___ into the ___ & courses toward the ___

psoas major muscle
lumbosacral trunk

pelvic brim
pelvis
obturator canal

49

the lumbosacral trunk is composed of the ___ portion of the ___ ramus of level ___ & all of the ___ ramus of level ___

it appears on the medial side of the ___ deep to the ___

it enters the ___ & joins the ___ ramus of level ___ in the formation of the ___

descending
ventral
L4
ventral
L5

psoas major muscle
obturator nerve

pelvis
ventral
S1
sacral plexus

50

the sympathetic trunks pass into the ___ beneath the ___ & descend along the medial borders of the ___ on the sides of the ___

the right sympathetic trunk lies posterior to the ___

the left trunk lies just to the left of the ___

abdomen
medial arcuate ligaments
psoas major muscles
vertebral bodies

IVC

abdominal aorta

51

the great vessels in the abdomen:

the abdominal aorta pierces the diaphragm at the level of ___ & bifurcates into the ___ at the level of ___

the level of the bifurcation is approximately 2-3cm inferior & to the left of the ___

the IVC begins by the union of the ___ beneath the ___ & ascends on the ___ to the right of the ___

T12
two common iliac arteries
L4

umbilicus

common iliac veins
right common iliac artery
posterior abdominal wall
aorta

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