The Posterior Abdominal Wall and Diaphragm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Posterior Abdominal Wall and Diaphragm Deck (10):
1

What is the order from anterior to posterior of structures in the hilum of the kidney?

Renal vein (anterior)
Renal artery
Ureter (posterior)

VAU (high yield)

2

What are the four muscles of the posterior abdominal wall?

Psoas major
iliacus
psoas minor
quadratus lumborum

3

What are the 3 portions of the diaphragm according to its musculature?

Sternal portion (from posterior surface of xiphoid)
Costal portion (from ribs 7-12 and costal cartilages)
Lumbar portion (from crura and arcuate ligaments)

4

What are the two arcuate ligaments? What do they cover the upper surface of?

Medial arcuate ligament - covers upper margin of psoas major (extend from body of L2 to transverse process of L1)
Lateral arcuate ligament - cover upper surface of quadratus lumborum (extend from transverse process of L1 to lower border of 12th rib)
(high yield)

5

What are the openings of the diaphragm? What level are they at, and what passes through?

Aortic hiatus (T12) - aorta, thoracic duct, azygous vein
Esophageal hiatus (T10) - esophagus, esophageal branches of left gastric vessels, right and left vagus nerves
Caval opening (T8) - inferior vena cava, branches of right phrenic
Sternocostal triangle (small gap between sternal and costal origins of diaphragm) allow superior epigastric vessels to pass

6

Which arcuate ligaments do the sympathetic trunks pass through the diaphragm? Which for the subcostal nerves?

Sympathetic trunks descend behind medial arcuate ligaments
Subcostal nerves descend behind lateral arcuate ligaments

7

What supplies the superior and inferior surface of the diaphragm with blood?

Superior - pericardiophrenic arteries (from internal thoracic artery), musculophrenic arteries (from internal thoracic artery), superior phrenic arteries (from thoracic aorta)
Inferior - inferior phrenic arteries (usually from abdominal aorta)

8

What is the motor and sensory nerve supply of diaphragm?

All of motor supply is from the phrenic nerves
Sensory supply is: Central portion - phrenic nerves, peripheral portions from lower intercostal and subcostal nerves

9

What forms the lumbar plexus?

Iliohypogasrtic (L1)
Ilioinguinal (L1)
Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh (L2-L3)
Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
Genitofemoral nerve (L1, L2)
Obturator nerve (L2-L4)

10

What are the main nerves of the posterior abdominal wall?

Subcostal nerve
Lumbar plexus (formed within psoas major from ventral rami of L1-L4)
Lumbosacral trunk (desceding portion of ventral ramus of L4 and all of ventral ramus of L5)
Lumbar sympathetic trunks