The Posterior Abdominal Wall and Diaphragm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Posterior Abdominal Wall and Diaphragm Deck (10)

What is the order from anterior to posterior of structures in the hilum of the kidney?

Renal vein (anterior)
Renal artery
Ureter (posterior)

VAU (high yield)


What are the four muscles of the posterior abdominal wall?

Psoas major
psoas minor
quadratus lumborum


What are the 3 portions of the diaphragm according to its musculature?

Sternal portion (from posterior surface of xiphoid)
Costal portion (from ribs 7-12 and costal cartilages)
Lumbar portion (from crura and arcuate ligaments)


What are the two arcuate ligaments? What do they cover the upper surface of?

Medial arcuate ligament - covers upper margin of psoas major (extend from body of L2 to transverse process of L1)
Lateral arcuate ligament - cover upper surface of quadratus lumborum (extend from transverse process of L1 to lower border of 12th rib)
(high yield)


What are the openings of the diaphragm? What level are they at, and what passes through?

Aortic hiatus (T12) - aorta, thoracic duct, azygous vein
Esophageal hiatus (T10) - esophagus, esophageal branches of left gastric vessels, right and left vagus nerves
Caval opening (T8) - inferior vena cava, branches of right phrenic
Sternocostal triangle (small gap between sternal and costal origins of diaphragm) allow superior epigastric vessels to pass


Which arcuate ligaments do the sympathetic trunks pass through the diaphragm? Which for the subcostal nerves?

Sympathetic trunks descend behind medial arcuate ligaments
Subcostal nerves descend behind lateral arcuate ligaments


What supplies the superior and inferior surface of the diaphragm with blood?

Superior - pericardiophrenic arteries (from internal thoracic artery), musculophrenic arteries (from internal thoracic artery), superior phrenic arteries (from thoracic aorta)
Inferior - inferior phrenic arteries (usually from abdominal aorta)


What is the motor and sensory nerve supply of diaphragm?

All of motor supply is from the phrenic nerves
Sensory supply is: Central portion - phrenic nerves, peripheral portions from lower intercostal and subcostal nerves


What forms the lumbar plexus?

Iliohypogasrtic (L1)
Ilioinguinal (L1)
Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh (L2-L3)
Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
Genitofemoral nerve (L1, L2)
Obturator nerve (L2-L4)


What are the main nerves of the posterior abdominal wall?

Subcostal nerve
Lumbar plexus (formed within psoas major from ventral rami of L1-L4)
Lumbosacral trunk (desceding portion of ventral ramus of L4 and all of ventral ramus of L5)
Lumbar sympathetic trunks