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USSR: Stalin In Power, 1928-53 > The Purges Of The 1930s > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Purges Of The 1930s Deck (17):
1

Even when he was undisputed leader, what anxieties did Stalin have?

- His own supporters could challenge his authority

- His old rivals could come back and overthrow him

2

How many died in the Great terror?

10 million

3

Who was head of the moderate opposition in the Politburo?

Kirov

4

What was the Ryutin affair?

- In 1932, Ryutin published criticisms of Stalin’s policies and formed an opposition group with Bukharin, Zinoviev and Trotsky called the Union of Marxist Leninists

- Stalin demanded Ryutin’s execution

- Kirov successfully persuaded the Politburo to send him to prison rather than execute him

5

How did Kirov get in the way of Stalin’s economic policy?

In 1933 he argued for more realistic targets for the Second Five Year Plan and for a greater emphasis on consumer goods

6

How did economic problems cause the Great Terror?

- Senior officials were aware of the problems appearing with Stalin’s industrial and agricultural policy

- Stalin could easily accuse workers and managers of causing the economic problems

- Slave labour in the Gulags could help revive the economy...

7

When was the Congress of Victors?

February 1934

8

What happened at the Congress of Victors?

- Stalin came second to Kirov in the elections for the new Central Committee

- Encouraged, several senior members of the Party urged Kirov to stand against Stalin for General Secretary

- Kirov refused and agreed to keep the vote a secret

9

When was Kirov murdered?

December 1934

10

How did Stalin use Kirov’s murder?

He used it as evidence of an anti-government conspiracy which only a purge would be able to stop

11

How did the Great Terror begin?

In December 1934 Stalin had Zinoviev and Kamenev arrested and organised an investigation into the Communist Party in Leningrad. All were accused of being in on the plot to kill Kirov.

12

When was the Trial of 16? What happened?

1936. Zinoviev, Kamenev and 14 of their supporters were executed.

13

When was the Trial of 17? What happened?

1937. 17 of Trotsky’s former supporters were imprisoned and executed.

14

When was the Trial of 21? What happened?

1938. Bukharin and 20 of his closest supporters were executed.

15

What demographic was the main target of the Great Terror?

Men aged between 30 and 45 accounted for 95% of those purged

16

When were the Secret Trials? What were they?

1937. Eight senior generals were tried for trying to overthrow the government. All were found guilty and executed.

17

How many army officers were purged during the Great Terror?

37,000