When no oxygen is available, what is the only macronutrient that can be used to produce ATP?
What is the name of the stored form of glucose?
Glucose burned with oxygen produces what?
Carbon dioxide, water ATP and heat.
Glucose burned without oxygen produces what?
Lactic acid, ATP and heat.
What are mitochondria and what is their function?
Mitochondria – tiny bodies found inside most cells which processes glucose with oxygen to produce energy.
What is the disadvantage of burning CHO without oxygen?
Lactic acid can lead to muscle soreness.
What is the process of burning fat for energy?
The process of burning fat for energy is called Lipolysis. During exercise, triglycerides in adipose tissues and muscle fibre are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
How much energy is produced per gram of fat?
How energy is produced per gram of CHO?
How much energy is produced per gram of protein?
When dose protein become an important source of energy?
When exercise continues for many hours.
As exercise intensity increases, what macronutrients is used more?
In the pre-exercise period, what is the best time to consume complex carbohydrates?
1.5 – 2 hrs prior to exercise.
In the pre-exercise period, what is the best time to consume simple carbohydrates?
Closer to the beginning of an exercise session.
When is ingesting CHOs during exercise acceptable?
- The exercise session continues longer than an hour.
- The match or race is longer than 90 mins in duration.
- A pre-exercise meal is not possible.
Define isotonic and hypertonic drinks.
Isotonic drinks – contain similar concentration of salt and sugar as found in the human body (for combined rehydration and carbohydrate replacement.
Hypertonic drinks – contain a lower concentration of salt and sugar than the human body (more efficient hydration with limited carbohydrate replacement.
What recommendations would you make regarding CHO intake post-training?
- Post-training: 1 gram CHO per kilogram body mass in the first two hours (50 gram intake in total).
- First intake within 15 mins post-training.
- Intake over 24 hours: 7-10 grams CHO per kilogram (500 -700 throughout the full day).
What is the BMR?
The basal metabolic rate BMR is the amount of calories the body burns at rest for basic functioning.
Calculate the BMR for a 168lb, 5ft 10 inch, 35-years-old male.
66 + ( 6.23 x 168 ) + ( 12.7 x 70 ) - ( 6.8 x 35 ) = 1763.64 kcal
How many daily calories would this individual with a BMR of 1763.64 kcal need if engaging in moderate amount of exercisel?
1763.64 x 1.55 = 2733.642 kcal
What activities use over 400 kcal/hr of energy for a 65kg female?
- High-impact aerobics
- Swimming vigorous pace
What are the functions of water in the body?
- It is the medium in which all our cellular chemical processes take place.
- It enables the transport of nutrients and gases around the body.
- It provides lubrication to our joints and protection for our organs.
- It allows maintenance of a consistent body temperature (especially during exercise).
What should an 80kg individual’s water intake be?
Tissue found under the skin and around organs that is composed of fat-storing cells.
The process of burning fat for energy.
BMR equation for women.
BMR = 655 + (4.35 x weight in pounds) + (4.7 x height in inches) – (4.7 x age in years)
BMR equation for men.
BMR = 66 + (6.23 x weight in pounds) + (12.7 x height in inches) – (6.8 x age in years)
Factoring exercise into BMR equation.
Amount of exercise Daily calories needed
Little/none BMR x 1.2
Light (1-3 days a week) BMR x 1.375
Moderate (3-5 days a week) BMR x 1.55
Heavy (6-7 days a week) BMR x 1.725
Very heavy (intense workout twice a day) BMR x 1.9.
Energy expenditure for different activities.
Activity Male kcal/hr Female Kcal/hr
High-impact aerobics 553 455
Badminton 356 293
Basketball 632 520
Light outdoor cycling 474 390
Heavy cleaning 237 195
Table tennis 316 260
Swimming vigorous pace 790 650
Volleyball 316 260
Vigorous weight lifting 474 390
Dancing 356 293
Ruby 790 650
Golf – driving range 237 195
Horse riding 316 260
Jogging 553 455
Pilates 277 228
Pushing baby buggy 198 163
Tennis 553 455
Brisk walking 395 325
Sitting – busy at office 198 163
Water intake requirements.
Body weight (KG) Est. daily water intake (litres)