the respiratory system TEST 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in the respiratory system TEST 3 Deck (60):
1

what part of the nose projects forward ?

external nose

2

what is formed by the nasal bones?

the bridge of the nose (external nose)

3

what is the hollow area inside external nose?

vestibule (of nasal cavity)

4

describe the vestibule of external nose:

it is lined by mucous membrane.
outside of vestibule is skin.
the wall of vestibule is muscle and connective tissue.

5

what are the holes into the vestibule called?

nostrils (external nares)

6

what is the nasal cavity?

it is part of the internal nose. it is a hole in skull between cranium and oral cavity lined in mucous membrane.

7

what are the ducts of the nasal cavity?

they are tubes that lead from nasal cavity to para-nasal sinuses (internal nose)

8

what are the grooves in nasal cavity formed by the nasal conchae?

meatuses (internal nose)

9

what is the olfactory epithelium?

located at roof of nasal cavity. contains olfactor (smell) receptors. (internal nose)

10

what is like a "wall" that separates the nasal cavity into left and right sides?

nasal septum.
1. in internal nose formed by: vomer & perpendicular plate (ethmoid)
2. external nose: septum is cartilage

11

what is the pharynx?

its a muscular funnel shaped organ lined with mucous membrane extends from internal nose to larynx and esophagus. has 3 regions.

12

which region of the pharynx is posterior to nasal cavity ?

nasopharynx

13

what are the internal nares?

(nasopharynx) openings to internal nose. (posterior to nasal aperture)

14

what part of the nasopharynx leads to middle ear?

pharyngotympanic tube

15

what is the oropharynx?

posterior to oral cavity. it has fauces- opening to oral cavity. (food passes through here)

16

what is posterior to the epiglottis? (nasopharynx)

the laryngopharynx: joins larynx and esophagus

17

where is the larynx located?

the larynx is located between the pharynx and the trachea, anterior to vertebrae c4-c6.

18

what is the structure of the larynx?

it is a short tube made of cartilage with some connective tissue and muscle, lined with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium.

19

describe the cartilage of the larynx:

9 pieces of cartilage all but 1 are hyaline cartilage.

20

what type of cartilage is one piece and is anterior shaped like a shield? (adams apple)

thyroid cartilage

21

what type of cartilage sits over glottis (hole into larynx) made of elastic cartilage, lined with mucous membrane, closes glottis when swallowing:

epiglottis

22

what is cricoid cartilage?

most inferior piece made of hyaline cartilage, short tube below the thyroid cartilage ( goes all the way around larynx like a ring)

23

which piece of cartilage is the 2 pieces of cartilage on posterior surface of larynx helps support vocal folds?

arytenoid cartilage

24

what are the corniculate cartilage?

pair of cartilage, pieces on posterior surface of larynx

25

which 2 piece of cartilage is on the posterior surface of larynx?

cuniform cartilage.

26

what are the mucous membrane folds of the larynx?

they are epithelial folds that extend into the glottis. (vocal and vestibular)

27

which folds of the larynx are slightly deeper than the mucous membrane folds that vibrate to make sounds?

the vocal folds

28

which folds of the larynx are slightly superior to the vocal folds that play no part in sound production but can pull together to close the glottis to hold breath and swallow?

vestibular folds (false vocal cords)

29

where is trachea located?

it is the tube extending from larynx to primary bronchi (about T5)

30

describe the structure of the trachea:

the trachea is made of several cartilage pieces, with connective tissue & muscle lines with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium.

31

describe the cartilage of the trachea:

16-20 rings of hyaline cartilage stacked up. "C" shaped not full circles

32

what is the carina of the trachea?

small piece of cartilage at the bottom of the trachea, full of nerves, produces a cough reflex

33

what is a set of tubes that lead from the bottom of the trachea into the lungs?

bronchi

34

what is the structure of the bronchi?

full rings of cartilage in their walls with connective tissue and smooth muscle and lines with pseudostratified epithelium.

35

what is the first branch of the bronchi?

the primary bronchi- 2 branch from the trachea largest branches of the bronchial tree.

36

what is secondary bronchi?

it is the branch from the primary bronchi, one for each lobe of each lung. 3 on the right and 2 on the left (only 2 lobes on the left lung)

37

what branches from the secondary bronchi, there's 10 on each side, lead ro broncho-pulmonary segments deep in both lungs?

tertiary bronchi

38

what are bronchioles?

form branches off of the tertiary bronchi. there are 14 branchings of the bronchioles. they get smaller at each branching. as they get smaller the cartilage rings are replaced by pates of cartilage. smaller bronchioles have more space between plates. as cartilage is reduced smooth muscle increases.

39

what is the smallest of the bronchioles?

terminal bronchioles, formed by last branching of the bronchioles.

40

what is the location of the lungs?

paired organs, lateral to the heart in thoracic cavity.

41

what is the structure of the lungs?

surrounded by pleural membranes.

42

what is the membrane lining the entire thoracic cavity?

1) parietal pleura-

43

what is the visceral pleura?

membrane around each lung.

44

what is the space between visceral and parietal pleura filled with fluid?

pleural cavity

45

what is the gross(means big) anatomy of the lungs?


a) hilus-hole in medial surfaceopen to nerves, blood vessesls, bronchi
b) cardiac notch- dent in left lung for apex of heart.

46

what is the base of the lungs?

is the wide inferior surface

47

what is the narrow superior surface of the lungs?

the apex of the lungs

48

what is the costal surface?

anterior surface of lungs

49

what is facing mid line slightly posterior?

medial surface of lungs

50

what is a hole in medial surface open to blood vessels and bronchi?

hilus of the lungs

51

what is the cardiac notch of the lungs?

dent in left lung for apex of heart

52

what are lobes and fissures?

lungs are divided into lobes and grooves called fissures

53

describe the right lung:

it has a superior lobe-(horizontal fissure) middle lobe-(oblique fissure)-inferior lobe

54

describe left lung:

superior lobe-(oblique fissure)- inferior lobe

55

what are the bronchopulmonary segments?

they are compartments in lobes, 10 per lung, each has tertiary bronhis enter it

56

what are lobules?

compartments in bronchopulmonary segments separated by elastic connective tissue. each lobe contains: a lymphatic vessel, 1 arteriole, 1 venule, branch off terminal bronchiole

57

what isthe branch from the terminal bronchioles, no cartilage, have simple squamous epithelium, lead to alveoli & alveolar sacs

respiratory bronchioles

58

what is the term for the out packet of wall of respiratory bronchiole, covered in capillaries, gas exchange occurs here

alveoli

59

what are the alveolar sacs?

groups of alveoli clustered together, share opening (alveolar duct)

60

what are alveolar cells?

alveoli made of simple squamous epithelium 3 kinds of cells in alveoli.
a) type 1 of alveolar cells- simple squamous cells
b) type 2 of alveolar cells- secrete surfactant
c) type 3 of alveolar cells- alveolar macrophages- eat pathogens in the alveoli