The Respiratory System (Thorax 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Respiratory System (Thorax 1) Deck (81):
1

What is the anterior thoracic wall comprised of ?

The sternum (manibrium and xiphisternum) and the thymus gland in children below 12 years of age.

2

What is the posterior thoracic wall comprised of ?

Vertebrae T1-T12

3

What is the lateral thoracic wall comprised of ?

Ribs 1-12

4

Which bones articulate with the Manubrium at its superolateral angles ?

Both clavicles at their sternal ends and both first and second pairs of ribs

5

What is the name given to the above mentioned joints and what type of cartilage is found at these joints ?

Sternocostal joints (Hyaline cartilaginous joints)

6

What is the name given to the notch formed by the superior border of the manubrium ?

Sternal (Jugular) notch

7

At what vertebral level is the xiphoid process located ?

T9

8

At what vertebral level is the sternomanubrial joint found ?

T4

9

With the bodies of which thoracic vertebrae will the head of rib 7 articulate ?

T6 and T7

10

With which thoracic vertebral structure does the tubercle articulate ?

The transverse process

11

What structures lie in the costal groove ?

Neurovascular bundle

12

Which ribs are true rubs ?

1-7

13

Which ribs are false ribs ?

8-10

14

Which ribs are floating ribs ?

11-12

15

How is the first rib atypical ?

It is short, wide and flat and articulates with only one vertebrae (T1).

16

What other grooves are found on the first rib ?

The grooves for the subclavian artery and the groove fore the subclavian vein

17

The demi-facets on the body of the vertebrae articulate with what part of the rib ?

The head of the rib

18

The head of the rib articulates with what part of the vertebrae ?

The demi-facets of the vertebrae

19

What neural structure occupies the inter-vertebral notch ?

Spinal nerve root

20

What part of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebrae ?

The tubercle

21

The tubercle of the rib articulates with what part of the vertebrae ?

Th transverse process

22

Which two parts of the vertebrae form the neural arch ?

The 2 pedicles and 2 laminae

23

A typical rib articulates with two vertebrae,with which vertebrae would rib 6 articulate ?

T6 and T5, the vertebral body of the same number and the vertebral body immediately above

24

Which anatomical structures make up the anatomical thoracic inlet ?

Rib 1 and the first thoracic vertebrae

25

Which anatomical structures make up the anatomical thoracic outlet ?

The 12th rib and the 12th thoracic vertebrae

26

Which ribs/costal cartilages form the costal margin ?

Ribs 7-10

27

Which costal cartilage are directly attached to the sternum ?

Ribs 1-6

28

Which ribs are indirectly attached to the sternum through preceding costal cartilage ?

Ribs 7-10

29

What are the three layers of intercostal muscle ?

External intercostal muscles
Internal intercostal muscles
Innermost intercostal muscles

30

From superior to inferior what is the sequence of the neurovascular bundle ?

Van
Artery
Nerve

31

Between which two layers of intercostals is the neurovascular bundle found ?

Internal intercostals and innermost intercostals

32

In which area of the rib is the neurovascular bundle found ?

The costal groove

33

What intercostal muscles are used for inspiration and expiration ?

Inspiration: External intercostals and diaphragm
Expiration: Internal intercostals and subcostals

34

For each neurovascular bundle what is found on top of each rib ?

A small collateral branch of the neurovascular bundle

35

What is the normal location for a chest drain ?

5th intercostal space mid axillary line

36

What is a dermatome ?

An area of the body that is supplied by a single spinal nerve

37

What is the spinal root of the brachial plexus ?

C5-T1

38

What is the spinal root of the lumbosacral plexus ?

L1-S4

39

Lymph nodes are found around what type of vessel ?

Large veins

40

What is the dermatome overlying the following:
Sternal angle
Nipple area
Umbilicus
Inguinal region

Sternal angle: T2
Nipple area: T4
Umbilicus: T10
Inguinal region: L1

41

What kind of muscle is the diaphragm made of ?

Skeletal muscle with a central tendon

42

How many major hiatus' does the diaphragm have ?

3 major hiatus'

43

What comes through the openings in the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity ?

The oesophagus
The inferior vena cava
The aorta

44

How many attachments does the diaphragm have ?

4 attachments

45

Which attachment is the longest and at what vertebral level does it attach ?

The righ crus attaches at L2/L3

46

What vertebral level does the left crus attach to ?

L1/L2

47

What is the name of the diaphragm's most posterior attachment ?

The medial arcuate ligament

48

Which of the left and right dome lies more superior during normal expiration and why ?

The left as the diaphragm is attached to the pericardium

49

What cardiac structure is firmly attached to the diaphragm ?

The fibrous pericardium

50

Which membrane covers the superior surface of the diaphragm ?

The parietal pleura

51

From most superior to inferior what are the vertebral levels for the openings within the diaphragm ?

Inferior vena cava: T8
Oesophagus: T10
Aorta: T12

52

Through which part of the diaphragm does the inferior vena cava pass ? the tendonous part or the muscular part ?

The tendonous part

53

Which pair of nerves are the most important in supplying the diaphragm ?

The pair of phrenic nerves that supply the diaphragm with motor and sensory input

54

The lower intercostal nerves supply what aspect of the diaphragm and with what ?

Supply the peripheral diaphragm with sensory supply

55

What is the nerve root of the phrenic nerve ?

C3, 4 and 5

56

Where does the vagus nerves lie in relation to the heart ?

More posterior and medially than the phrenic nerves

57

What kind of cartilage is the epiglottis made of ?

Elastic cartilage

58

What type of cartilage is the thyroid cartilage ?

Hyaline cartilage

59

What type of cartilage is the cricoid cartilage ?

Hyaline cartilage

60

What is the medical name for an adams apple ?

Laryngeal prominence

61

Which cartilage forms the laryngeal prominence ?

Thyroid cartilage

62

Name the muscle which completes the tracheal rings posteriorly ?

Trachealis muscle

63

The name of the bifurcation of the trachea ?

The carina

64

The arteries lying immediately lateral to the trachea in the neck are ?

The common carotid arteries

65

The nerve lying immediately lateral to the trachea on both sides

The vagus nerve

66

At what vertebral level does the trachea divide ?

T4

67

Which of the two bronchi are shorter and wider and more vertical ?

The right bronchus

68

Which two major arteries arch over the left main bronchus ?

The left pulmonary artery and the ascending aorta

69

Which bronchus gives off a branch before entering the lung and what is this branch called ?

The right bronchus gives off the eparterial bronchus (superior lobar bronchus)

70

On which lung surface if the hilum found ?

The medistinal surface

71

What is the hilum of the lung ?

An area of the lung on the mediastinal surface

72

What is the root of the lung ?

A group of structures found in the hila of the lung

73

What four structures does the lung root comprise of ?

The main bronchus
The pulmonary artery
The superior pulmonary vein
The inferior pulmonary vein

74

What are the two pleural membranes ?

The visceral pleura and the parietal pleura

75

Which pleural membrane feels pain ?

Parietal pleura

76

What is found between the pleural membranes ?

The pleural cavity

77

What is the nae of the area where the pleura changes direction to line another surface ?

Pleural reflection

78

During inspiration a space is created at the reflection, what is this space known as ?

Pleural recess

79

At what intercostal space would you aspirate from the pleural cavity ?

9th intercostal space

80

How many ribs difference does the pleura lie in relation to the lung ?

Two ribs below the lung

81

What type of epithelium is found in the respiratory tract ?

Pseudostratified sqamous ciliated epithelium