The rules: case rules, spelling rules, adjectives Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The rules: case rules, spelling rules, adjectives Deck (51):
1

Nominative Plural for Masculine Nouns

If the word ends in a consonant, add “ы”.
Replace “й” with “и”
Replace “ь” with “и”

2

Nominative Plural for Feminine Nouns

Replace “я” with “и”
Replace “ь” with “и”
Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г, К, Х, Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules.)

3

Nominative Plural for Neuter Nouns

For neuter nouns:
Replace “о” with “а”
Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules)

4

Accusative Singular for Masculine Nouns

1. If the noun in inanimate, there is no change.
2. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant, add “а”.
3. If noun is animate, replace “й”, with “я”.
4. If noun is animate, replace “ь”, with “я”.

5

Accusative Singular for Feminine Nouns

Feminine Nouns:
1. Replace “а” with “у”.
2. Replace “я” with “ю”.
3. Does not change if a soft sign.

6

Nominative Singular?

No change

7

Accusative Singular for Neuter?

No change

8

Accusative Plural for Inanimate Masculine Nouns

If the word ends in a consonant, add “ы”.
Replace “й” with “и”
Replace “ь” with “и”

- Same as Nominative Plural

9

Accusative Plural for Inanimate Feminine Nouns

Replace “я” with “и”
Replace “ь” with “и”
Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г, К, Х, Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules.)

- Same as Nominative Plural

10

Accusative Plural for Inanimate Neuter Nouns

For neuter nouns:
Replace “о” with “а”
Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules)

- Same as Nominative Plural

11

Accusative Plural for Animate Masculine Nouns

Masculine Nouns:
If ends in "ж,ч,ш,щ,ь" then add "ей"
If ends in "й, ц" (stressed) add "ев"
All other masuline nouns end in "ов"

- Same as Genitive Plural

12

Accusative Plural for Animate Feminine Nouns

Feminine Nouns:
If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending)
If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь"
If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й"
If ends in "ь" then add "ей"

- Same as Genitive Plural

13

Accusative Plural for Animate Neuter Nouns

Neuter Nouns:
If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending)
If ends in "е" becomes "ей"
If ends in "ие" becomes "ий"

- Same as Genitive Plural

14

Dative Singular for Masculine Nouns

Masculine Nouns:
1. If the noun ends in a consonant, add “у”.
2. Replace “й”, with “ю”.
3. Replace “ь”, add “ю”.

15

Dative Singular for Feminine Nouns

Feminine Nouns:
1. Replace “а” with “е”.
2. Replace “я” with “е”.
3. Replace “ь” with “и”.
4. Replace “ия” with “ии”.

16

Dative Singular for Neuter Nouns

Neuter Nouns:
1. Replace “о” with “у”.
2. Replace “е” with “ю”.

17

Dative Plural for Masculine, Feminine and Neuter Nouns

Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and...
1. If the noun ends in a consonant, add "ам".
2. Replace "а", "о" or a consonant with "ам".
3. Replace the last letter with "ям"

18

Genitive Singular for Masculine Nouns

Masculine Nouns:
1. If the noun ends in a consonant, add “а”.
2. Replace “й”, with “я”.
3. Replace “ь”, add “я”.

19

Genitive Singular for Feminine Nouns

Feminine Nouns:
1. Replace “а” with “ы”.
2. Replace “я” with “и”.
3. Replace “ь” with “и”.

20

Genitive Singular for Neuter Nouns

Neuter Nouns:
1. Replace “о” with “а”
2. Replace “е” with “я”

21

Genitive Plural for Masculine Nouns

Masculine Nouns:
If ends in "ж,ч,ш,щ,ь" then add "ей"
If ends in "й, ц" (stressed) add "ев"
All other masculine nouns end in "ов"

22

Genitive Plural for Feminine Nouns

Feminine Nouns:
If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending)
If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь"
If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й"
If ends in "ь" then add "ей"

23

Genitive Plural for Neuter Nouns

Neuter Nouns:
If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending)
If ends in "е" becomes "ей"
If ends in "ие" becomes "ий"

24

Instrumental Singular for Masculine Nouns

Masculine Nouns:
1. All consonants, add “ом”. Except...
2. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”, “ц”, “ч”, “ш” or “щ”, then add “ем”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules)
3. Replace “й”, with “ем”, if stressed “ём”.
4. Replace “ь”, add “ем”, if stressed “ём”.

25

Instrumental Singular for Feminine Nouns

Feminine Nouns:
1. Replace “а” with “ой” (or rarely “ою”). Except...
2. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”, “ц”, “ч”, “ш” or “щ”, replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules)
3. Replace “я” with “ей”, if stressed “ёй”.
4. Replace “ь” with “ью”.

26

Instrumental Singular for Neuter Nouns

Add “м”

27

Instrumental Plural for Masculine, Feminine and Neuter Nouns

Plurals - Russian Instrumental Case
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and...
1. All consonants, add "ами".
2. Replace "а", "о" with "ами".
3. Otherwise replace with "ями"


Exceptions: дочь - дочерьми (daughters), ребёнок - детьми (children), человек - людьми (people)

28

Prepositional Singular for Masculine Nouns

Masculine Nouns:
1. Add : “е”.
2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”)

29

Prepositional Singular for Feminine Nouns

Feminine Nouns:
1. Replace “а” with “е”.
2. Replace “я” with “е”.
3. Replace “ь” with “и”.

30

Prepositional Singular for Neuter Nouns

Neuter Nouns:
1. Replace “о” with “е”
2. “е” remains unchanged.

31

Prepositional Plural for Masculine, Feminine and Neuter Nouns

Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and...
1. Replace "а", "о" or a consonant with "ах".
2. Replace the last letter with "ях"

32

Pronouns of the Prepositional Case

Мне - Me
Тебе - You
Нём - Him
Ней - Her
Нём - It
Нас - Us
Вас - You (Plural)
Них - Them

33

Pronouns of the Instrumental Case

Мной - Me
Тобой - You
Им - Him
Ей - Her
Им - It
Нами - Us
Вами - You (plural)
Ими - Them

34

Pronouns of the Genitive Case

Меня - Me
Тебя - You (informal)
Его ("yevo") - Him
Её - Her
Его - It
Нас - Us
Вас - You (formal, or plural)
Их - Them

35

Pronouns of the Dative Case

Мне - me.
Тебе - you (informal).
Ему (m) - him
Ей (f) - her
Ему (n) - it
Нам - us.
Вам - you (formal, or plural).
Им - them.

36

Pronouns of the Accusative Case

Меня - Me
Тебя - You (informal)
Его ("yevo") - Him
Её - Her
Нас - Us
Вас - You (formal, or plural)
Их - Them

37

Pronouns of the Nominative Case

Я - I
Ты - You (informal)
Он - He, It (m)
Она - She, It (f)
Оно - It (n)
Мы - We
Вы - You (formal, or plural)
Они - They

38

USE: Nominative

The Russian nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. In the sentence “I love her”, the word “I” is the subject. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns, so there is nothing special to learn here.

39

USE: Prepositional

In Russian the prepositional case is used after the prepositions “о” (about), “в” (in), “на” (at).

40

USE: Dative

The dative case is used in Russian for the indirect object of a sentence. In the sentence "Adam gave flowers to Anna", the word "Anna" should be in the dative case. The indirect object is normally the person who receives the direct object.

41

USE: Accusative

To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”, you need to use the accusative case.

The Russian accusative case is used for the object of a sentence, in this case the word “dog”.

The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. The Russian language uses the case for all nouns.

42

USE: Genetive

The primary use of the Russian genitive case is to show possession. In English we often indicate this with an apostrophe (‘s), or the word “of”. Grammatically, the definition of possession may be larger than we are used to thinking of in English. In Russian the possessor always follows the object it possess. (This is the reverse of the normal English ‘s).

For example in the sentence “this is Adam’s dog”, the word “Adam” is in the genitive case. But to convert it to Russian you should think of it like “the dog of Adam’s”, placing the possessor after the object.

You should also use the genitive in most cases where you would use the word “of” in English.

You should use the genitive case for words, where in English you could place “some” or “any” before them.

The genitive is commonly used after negation.

43

USE: Instrumental Case

In Russian, the instrumental case is used to indicate how something is done. In English we commonly use the words "by" or "with" to do this. You would use the instrumental in a sentence like "we went there by car".

44

Endings and Rules for Nominative adjectives

MASCULINE

ый is the commonest
ий is the ending if the last consonant of the adjective is soft
ой replaces ый and ий if the adjective is stressed on the ending

новый
русский
второй

FEMININE
All the versions of the three masculine endings have the same ending: ая

новая
русская
вторая

NEUTER
All the versions of the three masculine endings have the same ending: ое

новое
русское
второе

45

Prepositional Case of adjectives

MASCULINE:
ALWAYS ом for новый/русский/другой
ALWAYS ем for ний (soft adjectives)

в новом городе/кафе
в зймнем городе/палъто

NEUTER:
ALWAYS ом for новый/русский/другой
ALWAYS ем for ний (soft adjectives)

в новом городе/кафе
в зймнем городе/палъто

FEMININE
ALWAYS ой for новый/русский/другой
ALWATS ей for ний (soft adjectives)

в новой кнйге
в зймей шапке

46

Accusative Case of Adjective - Masculine

If the noun doesn't change, the adjective doesn't change:

Русский язык красивый

Masculine animate nouns (people and animals) that are adjectives of the новый/русский/второй type end ого (pronounced yevo)

Вы знаете нового русскога

Adjectives of the последний and третий types have его (pronounced yevo)

Мы знаем последнега цсая (the last tsar)

47

Accusative Case of Adjectives - Neuter

If the noun doesn't change, the adjective doesn't change:

Русский язык красивый

Masculine animate nouns (people and animals) that are adjectives of the новый/русский/второй type end ого (pronounced yevo)

Вы знаете нового русскога

Adjectives of the последний and третий types have его (pronounced yevo)

Мы знаем последнега цсая (the last tsar)

48

Accusative Case of Adjectives - Feminine

FEMININE

ая becomes ую
яя becomes юю
третья becomes третью

холодная зймняя погода - Cold winter weather?

Вы любите холодную зимнюю погоду? - Do you like the cold winter weather?

49

Accusative of мой, твой, наш, ваш, этот, тот

Masculine inanimate, neuter?

- SAME AS NOMINATIVE

50

Accusative of мой, твой, наш, ваш, этот, тот

Masculine animate?

мои - моего
наш - нашего
этот - этого
тот - того


Вы знаете моего/нашего друга? -

Она любит етого/того англичанина?

51

Accusative of мой, твой, наш, ваш, этот, тот

Feminine

мой to мою
наш to нашу

Вы знаете мою нашу дочь? - Do you know my/our daughter?

Я знаю это ту женщину - I know this/that woman