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Flashcards in The Scientific Revolution And The Enlightenment Deck (44):
0

Aristotle and Alexandrian both believed in the

Geocentric theory

1

Polish clergyman and astronomer, challenged the geocentric view of the universe

Nicolaus Copernicus

2

Theroy that the earth revolves around the sun, which was the center of the universe

Heliocentric view

3

Formulated the three laws of planetary motion

Johannes Kepler

4

First to discover irrefutable proof of heliocentric theory

Galileo Galilei

5

Accuses Galileo of meddling with dangerous subjects

Pope urban VII

6

Advocated an inductive method for scientific explanation

Francis bacon

7

Advocated a deductive method for the search for truth

Rene Descartes

8

Two methods resulting in the logical creation of the scientific method

Rene Descartes deductive reasoning and Francis bacons inductive reasoning

9

Scientists organized societies in order to

Promote the research and spread of scientific knowledge

10

Scientific society's helped create

An international scientific community

11

Issac newtons principal combine

Keplers laws of planetary motion, Galileo's laws of inertia an falling bodies, and newtons own conception of gravity

12

Groups of thinkers and writers who espoused enlightened ideas

Philosophies

13

Believed god was a "cosmic watchmaker" and he let the universe run on natural laws

Deists

14

Deism was generally embraced by

Educated elites in Western Europe and America

15

Deism had little appeal to many people because if its

Lack of emotion and reliance on reason

16

Pietism stressed beliefs of

Faith, emotion and religion in the heart

17

Prince of the philosophies

Voltaire

18

Voltaire criticized France's

Ridged government

19

Voltaire denounced

Religious bigotry

20

Voltaire directed most of his criticism towards

Intolerance of organized Christianity, both Protestants and Catholics

21

"Crush the infamous thing" stated by Voltaire is directed towards

Enemies if reason and religious tolerance

22

Goal to bring together science, technology, mathematics, arts, an government or "all things"

Denis Diderot

23

Disseminated enlightened thinking across Europe and both America, undermined established authority

Encyclopedia

24

Attempted to create a "social science" by applying methods of natural sciences to the study of government, best represented in his "Spirit of the Laws"

Baron de Montesquieu

25

Montesquieu concluded that the ideal government was divided into

Executive legislative and judicial branches

26

Montesquieu's ideas of separated powers were meant to

Protect the rights of individuals

27

Separation of powers had a great influence on

The American constitution

28

Presented ideas on education in the mid 18th century

Emile by jean Jacques Rousseau

29

Rousseau argued a ____________ should replace ridged schooling

Natural education

31

Rousseau argued individuals enter a social contract with

One another

32

Rousseau's ideas of social contracts created a

Community or organized civil society

33

Rousseau beloved sovereign power of the state should lie with the

General will of the community

34

Rousseau distrusted reason and science and embraced

Emotions

35

Voltaire generally supported

Religious tolerance

36

Voltaire generally opposed

Superstition and ignorance

37

Rousseau's ideas of education are presented in his novel

Emile

38

General will

Sovereign power of state lies with community

39

French economic reformers

Physiocrats

40

Physiocrats questioned

Mercantilist principles

41

Physiocrats argued that governments should follow a

Laissez faire policy

42

Laissez fair policy

Noninterference with the economy

43

Most influential advocate of laissez faire economics

Adam smith

69

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke argued that individuals enter a social contract with

Their rulers