What are the two main processes coming off the scapula?
Coracoid process Acromion process
What are the differences between the anatomical and surgical necks of the humerus?
Anatomical – between the head of the humerus and everything else Surgical – the main narrowing of the distal humerus – it is the most common site for fractures of the humerus
What are the three fossae of the scapula?
Supraspinous Infraspinous Subscapular
Which part of the scapula articulates with the humerus?
On which bones are deltoid tubercles found?
Spine of the scapula Humerus
What is the name given to the distinctive notch on the scapula?
What is the name given to the groove between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus?
Intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove)
What are the two distinctive protrusions on the lateral third of the clavicle and what are their roles?
Conoid tubercle Trapezoid line They are the point of attachment of the conoid ligament and trapezoid ligament (both part of the coracoclavicular ligament)
What are the names of the three fossae at the distal end of the humerus?
Anterior – coronoid and radial fossae Posterior – olecranon fossa
What are the names given to the two ridges on either side of the distal end of the humerus?
Medial supracondylar ridge Lateral supracondylar ridge
What are the five muscle compartments of the region?
Anterior pectoral Posterior pectoral Intrinsic shoulder Anterior compartment of arm Posterior compartment of arm
Which muscles make up the anterior pectoral compartment?
Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior Subclavius
What are the attachments of pectoralis major?
Medial 1/2 of the clavicle + sternum + part of costal margin Lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus
What are the actions of pectoralis major?
Adducts and medially rotates the shoulder
Which nerve innervates pectoralis major?
Lateral pectoral nerve
What are the attachments of pectoralis minor?
Ribs 3-5 Coracoid process
Which nerve innervates pectoralis minor?
Medial pectoral nerve
What are the attachments of subclavius?
1st costochondral joint Clavicle
Which nerve innervates subclavius?
What are the attachments of serratus anterior?
Medial border of the costal surface of the scapula Anteriorly attaches to the ribs (1-9)
Which nerve innervates serratus anterior?
What can damage to this nerve cause?
Winging of the scapula
Which muscles make up the posterior pectoral compartment?
Trapezius Latissimus dorsi Levator scapulae Rhomboids (minor and major)
What is the motor supply to trapezius?
Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Describe the attachments of latissimus dorsi.
Thoracolumbar fascia and posterior 1/3 of the iliac crest Floor of the intertubercular sulcus
Which nerve innervates latissimus dorsi?
What movement is latissimus dorsi responsible for?
Extends, adducts and rotates the humerus
Describe the attachments of the rhomboids.
Both attach distally to the medial border of the scapula Rhomboid minor attaches proximally to the spinous processes of C7 and T1 Rhomboid major attaches proximally to the spinous processes of T2-T5
Which nerve supplies the rhomboids?
Dorsal scapular nerve
What movement are the rhomboids responsible for?
Retracts, rotates and fixes the scapula