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Flashcards in The Stages of Attachment Deck (13):

Name the stages of attachment

Asocial stage
Indiscriminate attachment
Discriminate attachment
Multiple attachments


Who proposed the stages of attachment?

Schaffer (& Emerson)


Describe the asocial stage

Respond equally to caregivers and objects
Demonstrate reciprocity and interactional synchrony


Describe the indiscriminate attachment stage

Preference for people
No stranger anxiety
Accept care from anyone


Describe the discriminate attachment stage

Separation anxiety
May start to show stranger anxiety
Specific attachment formed


Describe the multiple attachment stage

Baby can form several attachments


What type of study was Schaffer and Emerson's study?

Longitudinal study


What was the sample of Schaffer and Emerson's study?

60 Glasgow babies


Describe Schaffer and Emerson's study

Mothers were interviewed about the intensity of different behaviours their child showed in different everyday situations.
Stranger anxiety towards the researcher was also measured.


Explain the findings of Schaffer and Emerson's study

The findings supported the stages.
At 6-8 months, 50% showed separation anxiety
9-10 months, 80% had specific attachment, 30% formed multiple attachments


Strengths of Schaffer and Emerson's research

good sample

external validity

high internal validity - longitudinal study - shows how attachments DEVELOP


Weakness of Schaffer and Emerson's research

Cultural bias (ethnocentric)

Qualitative techniques used e.g. interviews.
Social desirability may have been a problem

Researcher is no longer a stranger at the end of the experiment, so could lack internal validity when measuring stranger anxiety


Weaknesses of the stages

Ignores individual differences because the stages are inflexible

Cultural bias. The stages refer to individualist cultures. e.g. in collectivist cultures, babies may develop multiple attachments earlier on.