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Flashcards in the Stomach Deck (49):
1

Blood supply to greater curvature

R and L gastroepiploic arteries

2

Blood supply to lesser curvature

R and L gastric arteries

3

Blood supply to pylorus

Gastroduodenal artery

4

Blood supply to fundus

short gastric arteries

5

Celiac trunk branches

see image

A image thumb
6

Parietal cells

Secrete HCl and intrinsic factor (needed for B12 absorption) into gastric lumen. Secrete bicarb into venous circulation and into protective gastric mucosa. Located in body and fundus

7

Chief cells

Secrete pepsinogen (digest protein). Located in fundus and body

8

G cells

Secrete gastrin. Located in antrum

 

Gastrin secreting cells are also found in duodenum and pancreas

9

Parietal cells are stimulated by what?

Gastrin, histamine, vagus nerve

10

What inhibits bicarb secretion into protective mucus by pareital cells?

NSAIDs, alpha blockers, alcohol, acetazolamide

11

What type of ulcer perforation will not show free air on KUB?

Posterior perf of duodenal ulcer = no free air because retroperitoneal

12

What is another complication of PUD besides bleeding or rupture?

Gastric outlet obstruction

13

Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

20% are associated with MEN1. Fasting serum gastrin > `1000 is diagnostic. Secretin stimulation test shows paradoxical rise in gastrin.

14

Preferred H. pylori tx

PPI, clarithromycin, amoxicillin x 14 days

15

Surgery for PUD, duodenal ulcer

Only if refrax to med tx or if hemorrhage/obstruction/perf. Can do highly selective vagotomy, taking out branches going to the lesser curvature of stomach.

16

Surgery for PUD, gastric ulcer

Depending on location: antrectomy, highly selective vagotomy, subtotal gastrectomy with R-enY

17

Early dumping syndrome (a postgastrectomy syndrome)

Within 15 min of eating- rapid emptying of food into small bowel. Food is hyperosmolar, so fluid rapidly shifts from plasma into the small bowel -> hypotension. Presents with pain, diarrhea, nausea, tachycardia. Manage by eating small frequent meals and avoid high sugar content foods. Usu resolves 7-12 weeks.

18

Late dumping syndrome (a postgastrectomy syndrome)

Hyperglycemia after meal -> insulin response -> hypoglycemia 2-3 hrs after meal. Present with dizziness, fatigue, diaphoresis, weakness. Tx is similar to early dumping syndrome.

19

Post vagotomy diarrhea

Usually self-limited, tx symptomatically e.g. with loperamide.

20

Alkaline reflux gastritis (a postgastrectomy syndrome)

Must rule out recurrent ulcer before diagnosing this. Presentation: chronic abd pain, bilious vomiting. Tx: R-en-Y gastrojejunostomy. Recurrence may occur after this procedure.

21

Afferent loop syndrome (a postgastrectomy syndrome)

Obstruction of afferent limb following gastrojejunostomy. Present: RUQ pain after meal, steatorrhea, bilious vomiting, anemia; majority present in first week post-op. Dx with UGI series (afferent loop devoid of contrast). Tx: endoscopic balloon dilation or surgical revision.

22

Complications of chronic gastritis

Gastric atrophy. Gastric metaplasia. Pernicious anemia 2/2 parietal cell atrophy -> no IF

23

Causes of gastritis

Gastric reflux (e.g. pancreatic secretions), NSAIDs, alcohol, H pylori, Ischemia, nicotine, steroids (long term use)

24

Causes of upper GI hemorrhage

Mallory Weiss tear, varices, gastritis, AVM, peptic ulcer

25

Indications for bariatric surgery

BMI > 40 or BMI > 35 + comorbidities

26

Vertical banded gastroplasty

Partitioning of stomach into small proximal pouch and more distal pouch. Results in earlier satiety signal tot hypothalamus, delayed gastric emptying. Advantage is that it does not interrupt anatomy of GI tract

27

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

Bypassed: stomach, duodenum, and proximal jejunum. Jejunum transected 15 cm past ligament of Treitz and attached to antrum

28

Roux-en-Y picture

see attached

A image thumb
29

Gastric volvulus

Torsion of stomach, usu along long axis. Often assoc with paraesophageal hernia. May be acute but more often chronic. Presents with intermittent severe epigastric pain/distention + inability to vomit. Dx: upper GI contrast study. Tx: surgical repair of accompanying hernia plus gastropexy (fix stomach to ant ab wall), gastric resection if necrosis occurred.

30

Majority of malignant stomach tumors are..?

Adenocarcinoma, 95%

31

Risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma

FAP, chronic atrophic gastritis, H pylori infection, post-partial gastrectomy, pernicious anemia, diet high in nitrates, smoking

32

Types of gastric adenocarcinoma

Polyploid, ulcerative, superficial spreading (best prog), linitis plastica (very poor prog)

33

Krunkenberg's tumor

Met to ovaries, most commonly from gastric adenocarcinoma but can be from elsewhere such as breast

34

Blumer's shelf

Met to pelvic cul-de-sac (felt on DRE)

35

Virchow's node

Met to LN palpable in L supraclavicular fossa

36

Best method for dx of gastric adenocarcinoma

Upper GI endoscopy

37

Gastric cancer staging

see attached

A image thumb
38

What is the second most common type of gastric malignancy?

Gastric lymphoma (includes but not limited to mucosa associated lymphoid tissue-MALT- lymphoma)

39

What group is at increased risk of gastric lymphoma?

HIV positive

40

Tx of gastric lymphoma

Low grade: tx for H pylori. High grade MALT or non-MALT lymphoma: rads/chemo. Resection only if bleeding or perf.

41

Gastric sarcoma

Most are leiomyosarcomas. Tx is surgical resection.

42

Carney triad

Gastric leiomyosarcoma, pulmonary chondromas, extra-adnreal paraganglioma. Syndrome seen in women under 40.

43

Benign tumors of stomach (10% of stomach tumors overall)

Adenomatous polyps, lipomas, ectopic pancreas, Menetrier''s disease, bezoars, Dieulafoy's lesion

44

Adenomatous polyps of stomach

Only type of stomach polyp with malignant potential. Bx lesions > 5 mm.

45

Stomach lipoma

Do not need to biopsy, usu just found incidentally in endoscopy

46

Ectopic pancreas

Rare. Often presents as "umbilicated dimple." Bx to exclude malignancy.

47

Menetrier's disease

Autoimmune dz causing hypertrophic gastritis -> protein-losing enteropathy. Enlarged, tortuous rugae. Can lead to gastric cancer or ulcer. Tx: anticholinergics, H2 blockers to reduce protein loss; protein rich diet; tx ulcer/cancers if present; severe dz may require gastrectomy.

48

Bezoars

Concretions of nondigestible matter that accumulate in stomach, may develop after gastric surgery. Sx are similar to those of gastric outlet obstruction (early satiety, vomiting etc.) Tx: proteolytic enzymes (papain), endoscopic fragmentation, surgical removal.

49

Dieulafoy's lesion

Developmental malformation of a tortuous arteriole in the stomach that erodse and bleeds. Presents with massive, recurrent, painless hematemesis. Dx: endoscopy. Tx: endoscopic sclerosing tx or electrocautery; wedge resection.