Flashcards in The UK's Evolving Physical Landscape Deck (162)
What is glacial abrasion?
A process of erosion involving the wearing away of the valley floor and sides. It also wears away shorelines in coastal zones.
What is glacial plucking?
A process of erosion involving individual rocks being plucked from the valley floor and sides as water freezes them to the glacier.
Outline the process of freeze thaw weathering and any outcomes of it:
Erosion caused due to water freezing in a crack, expanding, widening the rock and melting again.
This causes moraine and piles off scree.
What is the cause of meltwater and what does it do?
Ice melting in summer.
Lubricates the glacier, letting it move (basal/ rotational slip).
Why do glaciers move downhill in winter?
The glacier is frozen to the surface so its weight and gravity cause individual ice crystals to move. This is called internal deformation.
What are the 4 types of moraines?
How are Corries formed?
1) Snow accumulates in a hollow hillside
2) Snow turns to ice, compressing the land and forming a small Corrie glacier
3) The glacier repeatedly scoops out rock (due to rotational slip and plucking)
4) A raised lip is formed as ice is thinner near the Corrie edges
5) After a glacial period, the ice melts to form a Corrie lake (tarn)
How are arêtes and pyramidal peaks formed?
2 or more Corries form back to back
What is a hanging valley?
A valley which has been cut across by another deeper valley (usually resulting in a waterfall)
Name 7 glacial features of upland areas
-Tarn (Corrie lake)
What is carbon dating?
Using radioactive testing to determine the age of rocks, which contained living material
What are the three types of rock?
Sedimentary, Metamorphic, Igneous
What are layers of rock called?
What types of rock are found in high relief areas?
Igneous and Metamorphic as they are more resistant
What type of rock is found in low relief areas?
Sedimentary rock as they are less resistant
Where is sedimentary rock found?
East of England
How did tectonic processes affect the Pennines?
- Convection currents beneath the plate, uplifted rocks from below the sea, to form land
- Some rocks snapped and moved along faults over thousands of years in a series of earthquakes
- Each earthquake raised faults to different heights
Where is Metamorphic rock found?
West of England
Why are some parts of a valley worn away more easily than others?
They are made from a less resistant type of rock
How do V-shaped valleys form?
Rivers erode into the valley over time
How do U-shaped valleys form?
Glaciers erode further into the V-shaped valleys making wide troughs
How is igneous rock formed?
Molten magma or lava cools slowly, forming crystals.
Give an example of an igneous rock.
How is metamorphic rock formed?
Igneous or sandstone rocks get pushed under continental plates. The heat and pressure changes them into new rocks.
Give 2 examples of metamorphic rocks.
How is sedimentary rock formed?
Rocks and dead fossils which has been weathered, eroded and deposited on the sea- bed are compacted to form new rocks.
Give 3 examples of sedimentary rocks.
What are the characteristics of igneous rock?
Heavy, dark, very resistant
What are the characteristics off metamorphic rock?