The USA: A Nation of Contrast 1910-1929 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The USA: A Nation of Contrast 1910-1929 Deck (185):
1

Key Question 1: Immigration

How many people had immigrated to the USA between 1900 and 1909?

9 million people.

2

Key Question 1: Immigration

What was the USA called for having a very mixed society?

A 'melting pot'.

3

Key Question 1: Immigration

What were the five main groups that the USA was made up of?

White Americans, Black Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics, Asians.

4

Key Question 1: Immigration

Why did rich immigrants move to America?

To enjoy the wealth and business opportunies.

5

Key Question 1: Immigration

Why did poor immigrants move to America?

To escape persecution or poverty.

6

Key Question 1: Immigration

Why did people move from Europe to the USA?

To live the 'American Dream', leaving behind the overcrowding and rising unemployment in Europe.

7

Key Question 1: Immigration

What was the 'open door' policy?

There were no restrictions of people who could enter the USA.

8

Key Question 1: Immigration

How much of the population of America's 12 largests cities were immigrants?

1/3.

9

Key Question 1: Immigration

How much of the population of children in America were immigrants?

1/3.

10

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did European immigrants go past in ships when arriving in the USA?

Ellis Island.

11

Key Question 1: Immigration

What were immigrants given at Ellis Island?

Health checks to make sure they weren't bringing in infectious diseases.

12

Key Question 1: Immigration

How many immigrants were rejected entry to the USA in 1911?

2% of those who arrived.

13

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did many immigrants discover when they arrived in the USA?

That it wasn't what they were expecting and they found themselves living in poverty and in appalling conditions.

14

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did most immigrants not do once they arrived in the USA?

Move beyond the cities.

15

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did the First World War do?

Encouraged opposition to immigration.

16

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did American citizens demand after the 1917 Communist Revolution in Russia?

That the government start to restrict immigration.

17

Key Question 1: Immigration

When was the Literacy Test?

1917.

18

Key Question 1: Immigration

What was the Literacy Test?

A series of reading and writing tests that immigrants had to pass before entering the USA.

19

Key Question 1: Immigration

Why did many immigrants fail the tests?

Many of the poorer immigrants, especially those from eastern Europe, had recieved no education.

20

Key Question 1: Immigration

When was The Emergency Quota Act?

1921.

21

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did The Emergency Quota Act restrict the number of immigrants to?

357,000 per year.

22

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did The Emergency Quota Act set the quota down to?

3% of the total population of any overseas group already in the USA.

23

Key Question 1: Immigration

When was The National Origins Act?

1924.

24

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did The National Origins Act restrict the number of immigrants to?

150,000 per year.

25

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did The National Origins Act set the quota down to?

2% of the total population of any overseas group already in the USA.

26

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did The National Origins Act also ban?

Immigration from Asia.

27

Key Question 1: Immigration

What is xenophobia?

Fear of foreigners.

28

Key Question 1: Immigration

What is the Red Scare?

The fear of Communism.

29

Key Question 1: Immigration

What is Communism?

The belief that everyone is equal, that all wealth should be shared equally amongst all the people.

30

Key Question 1: Immigration

Why were richer people afraid of Communism and poorer people were not?

Because they would lose everything while it would make poorer people's lives better.

31

Key Question 1: Immigration

When did the Communist party take over Russia?

1917.

32

Key Question 1: Immigration

What were Communists blamed for in 1919.

Encouraging 400,000 workers to go on strike.

33

Key Question 1: Immigration

How much of the American population were Communist?

Less than 0.1%.

34

Key Question 1: Immigration

What happened in June 1919?

A bomb exploded outside Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer's home.

35

Key Question 1: Immigration

Why did Palmer assume that Communists planted the bomb?

A Communist leaflet was found near his home.

36

Key Question 1: Immigration

When did the Wall Street bombing happen?

September 1920.

37

Key Question 1: Immigration

How many people were killed in the Wall Street bombing?

Over 30.

38

Key Question 1: Immigration

How many Communists were arrested during the Palmer Raids of 1919-1920?

6,000.

39

Key Question 1: Immigration

What happened with the arrested Communists?

There was very little evidence that could link them to any kind of violent activity.

40

Key Question 1: Immigration

What had Palmer spread?

Flase anti-Communist propaganda.

41

Key Question 1: Immigration

Who were Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti?

Italian immigrants.

42

Key Question 1: Immigration

What happened in May 1920?

Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested and accused of armed-robbery on a shoe factory, during which two people were killed.

43

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did Sacco and Vanzetti have in their car?

Radical anti-government leaflets.

44

Key Question 1: Immigration

Why was public opinion against Sacco and Vanzetti?

Because of their political ideas and because they were immigrants.

45

Key Question 1: Immigration

How many witnesses said they saw Sacco and Vanzetti at the crime scene?

61.

46

Key Question 1: Immigration

How many witness said they saw Sacco and Vanzetti elsewhere?

107.

47

Key Question 1: Immigration

When was the Sacco and Vanzetti court case?

May 1921.

48

Key Question 1: Immigration

What did Judge Webster Thayer do at the Sacco and Vanzetti court case?

He made anti-Italian jokes.

49

Key Question 1: Immigration

Who later admitted that they had committed the crime?

Celestino Maderios.

50

Key Question 1: Immigration

When were Sacco and Vanzetti executed by electrocution?

August 1927.

51

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What is the Bible Belt?

The nickname given to some of the rural Southern States, home of very strict Christians.

52

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What are Religious Fundamentalists?

People who believed that the bible, in particular the Old Testament, was literally true.

53

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What are Revlivalists?

People who want more people to go to church.

54

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

Who had a radio show to preach the bible?

Aimee Semple McPherson.

55

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What happened in the 1800s to challenge the Bible Belt?

Charles Darwin developed the Theory of Evolution.

56

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did religious fundamentalists set up in 1924?

The Anti-Evolution League.

57

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did the Butler Act do?

Completely banned the teaching of evolution in six states, including Tennessee.

58

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

Who was John Scopes?

A Biology teacher who was put on trial in Tennessee for teaching evolution in 1925.

59

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What was the name of the trial for John Scopes?

The Monkey Trial.

60

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did media coverage convince many Americans of?

That the fundamentalists could not be taken seriously.

61

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What happened to John Scopes?

He was found guilty and fined $100, but he was never made to pay it.

62

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

Why were Native Americans considered inferior to white people?

Because of their nomadic lifestyle and religious beliefs.

63

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

How did the USA government badly treat Native Americans?

Native Americans were not considered US citizens.
They could not vote or own land.
They had to live in government controlled reservations.
Their children were sent away to boarding schools to assimilate into a white, Christian society.

64

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did the 1920s Eugenics Project do?

Start sterilizing Native American women.

65

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

When did things begin to improve slightly for Native Americans?

After WW1 when 12,000 Native Americans were killed.

66

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

When was the Indian Citizenship Act?

1924.

67

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

When was the Meriam Report?

1928.

68

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did the Meriam Report state?

Native American children should be taught a combination of tradition Native American skills and white, Christian education.

69

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What happened in 1865?

The American Civil War ended slavery.

70

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What is discrimination also known as?

The Jim Crow Laws.

71

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did the Jim Crow Laws make sure of?

That black Americans were poor, badly educated, lived in seperate neighbourhoods in poor quality housing, were seperated on public transport and in some cases not allowed to vote.

72

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What are some ways that black Americans were not allowed to vote?

Grandchildren of slaves couldn't vote.
If you couldn't pay taxes, you couldn't vote.
If you couldn't pass the Literacy Test, you couldn't vote.

73

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What were sharecroppers?

Freed slaves working on other people's land, and they earnt very little.

74

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

When was the Ku Klux Klan created?

During the American Civil War.

75

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

When was the KKK revived?

After the 1915 film 'The Clansmen'.

76

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

How many members were in the KKK by 1921?

Over 100,000.

77

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

How many members were in the KKK by the mid-1920s?

5 million.

78

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

Who could join the KKK?

White Anglo-Saxon Protestants.

79

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

How were black people often killed by the KKK?

Lynching.

80

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

How many lynchings were there between 1915 and 1922?

430.

81

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What would the local police do with the KKK?

Not protect the victims and even take part in the killings.

82

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

Why were the KKK not brought to justice very often?

Klan members knew that their friends in the courts would not find them guilty.

83

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

Why did the government not do anything about the KKK?

Politicians were scared of losing votes.

84

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What happened to the KKK in 1925?

David Stephenson, the Klan Indiana Grand Dragon, caused serious injuries to a woman.

85

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

When did the membership of the Klan fall?

1928.

86

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

How many black Americans moved North between 1915 and 1925?

1.5 million.

87

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

Which areas became highly populated with black people?

South Side in Chicago and Harlem in New York.

88

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

Why were black people migrating?

For more opportunity to work and for higher wages.

89

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did black Americans also bring with them North?

Jazz music.

90

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What is an example of a jazz venue?

The Cotton Club in Harlem.

91

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What are some examples of jazz performers?

Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong.

92

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did Booker T. Washington do?

Organised schools to help educated black men and women.

93

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did W.E.B. Dubois do?

Founded the NAACP in 1909.

94

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What does the NAACP stand for?

National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People.

95

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did the NAACP do?

Helped black people overcome segregation without breaking the law.

96

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did Marcus Garvey do?

Founded the UNIA in 1914.

97

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What does the UNIA stand for?

The Universal Negro Improvement Association.

98

Key Question 2: Religion and Race

What did the UNIA do?

Helped to send black people back to Africa and set up their own businesses.

99

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

When was the 18th Amendment passed?

1919.

100

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What was the 18th Amendment?

The complete ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol.

101

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What did the Volstead Act clarify?

It deemed 'intoxicating liquors' as anything more than 0.5% alcohol.

102

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

Which two groups campaigned for prohibition?

The Women's Christian Temperance Union. The Anti-Saloon League.

103

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

Because of WW1, what weren't you if you drank German beer?

A true American.

104

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What did Christians believe alcohol was?

The work of the Devil.

105

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What did Bootleggers do?

Illegally made and sold alcohol.

106

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What was moonshine?

Poorly made liquor that could blind or paralyse people.

107

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What percentage were deaths from alcohol up by in 1927?

600%.

108

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What were Speakeasies?

Illegal bars to get alcohol.

109

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What were Rum Runners?

People who smuggled alcohol into the USA from Canada and Mexico.

110

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What did John Kramer do?

Put Prohibition Agents in place.

111

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

How many prohibition agents were there by 1929?

3,000.

112

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

Why were the agents not effective at enforcing prohibition?

There were not enough agents and they were low paid and willing to take bribes.

113

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

How much would it have cost the US government to pay an effective amount of agents?

$300 Million.

114

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

Why did prohibition end?

It caused more crime than it solved and more alcohol was drunk by Americans during prohibition than before it was banned.

115

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

How many illegal bars were there in New York compared to how many legal bars there were before prohibition?

32,000 illegal bars compared to the 15,000 legal ones.

116

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

How many people had been killed during prohibition?

500 prohibition agents and 2000 civilians.

117

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

When did prohibition end, who by, and in which amendment?

1933 when President Roosevelt brought in the 21st Amendment.

118

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

Who established themselves to supply and distribute alcohol during prohibition?

Organised gangs of criminals.

119

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

Who was Al Capone?

A mob boss in Chicago.

120

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

How much money was Al Capone making a year by 1929?

$27 Million.

121

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

How many murders was Al Capone responsible for between 1926-27?

Over 100.

122

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What happened at the St Valentine's Day Massacre?

7 members of Bugs Moran's gang were killed by Al Capone's men dressed as policemen.

123

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What was the general public's reaction to the massacre when they heard about it?

They were disgusted by how bad gang violence had gotten.

124

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What happened to the killers?

No-one from Al Capone's gang was ever convicted.

125

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What did Eliot Ness do in 1931?

Found enough evidence to get Al Capone imprisoned for income tax fraud.

126

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What is corruption?

The abuse of a government position for personal gain.

127

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

When was Warren Harding elected President?

1920.

128

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What was Warren Harding's campaign?

To return America to pre-war normalcy.

129

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What was the Ohio Gang?

President Harding's friends whom he appointed to positions in his Cabinet.

130

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What did Harry Daughtery do?

Took bribes from people.

131

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What did Charles Forbes do?

Stole money from veteran's medical care, pensions, and benefits.

132

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What had been discovered at the Teapot Dome?

Oil which was reserved for the use of thhe United States Navy.

133

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What did Albert B. Fall do?

As Secretary of the Interior, he loaned part of the oil reserves to his friends.

134

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

How much money did Albert B. Fall personally gain?

$400,000.

135

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

When was the Teapot Dome Scandal first reported?

April 1922.

136

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

When was the Teapot Dome Scandal first revealed to the public?

1924.

137

Key Question 3: Crime and Corruption

What happened to Albert B. Fall?

He was forced to resign, asked to pay a $100,000 fine, and went to prison for one year.

138

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What did America have a vast supply of in 1910?

Natural resources such as coal, wood, and oil.

139

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What did America do before they joined WW1 in 1917?

Sold food and weapons to the countries that were involved.

140

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What were there shortages of in Europe?

Food.

141

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How many cars were sold in 1919 compared to in 1929?

9 million compared to 26 million.

142

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How many radios were sold in 1919 compared to in 1929?

60,000 compared to 10 million.

143

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How many more American's owned vacuum cleaners, washing machines, and fridges?

21%, 16%, and 7%.

144

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How much did wages increase by?

25%.

145

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How many cars were bought on hire purchase?

6/10.

146

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What made more products available such as vacuum cleaners, radios, and refridgerators?

The electrification of America.

147

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What was the first company to increase profits through advertising?

Coca-Cola.

148

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How much money was spent on advertising by 1929?

$200 million.

149

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What was the first full time radio sttation which was paid for by advertising?

KDKA.

150

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What are some examples of department stores and supermarkets?

JC Penney and Piggly Wiggly.

151

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What is a share?

Invested money in a business.

152

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What was the average profit of a share in the 1920s?

65%.

153

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What did people do once they became confident?

They started speculating.

154

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

Who believed in individualism?

President Coolidge.

155

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

Would would the Republican government not do?

Force employers to set minimum wages or improve working conditions.

156

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What did the Republican government impose?

Tariffs on imported goods.

157

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

When was the Fordney McCumber Act?

1922.

158

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What did Henry Ford do?

Build a car that was affordable to the masses: the Model T.

159

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How did the price of the Model T change between 1909 and 1928?

In 1909 it was $1200, in 1928 it was $295.

160

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How fast did Ford produce cars in 1929?

One car per minute.

161

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How did Ford sell his cars so cheaply?

Because it was standardised - one size engine and one colour (black).

162

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What did Ford develop the idea of?

The assembly line where workers stayed at one station.

163

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

How long did it take to build a Model T in 1913 compared to in 1914?

In 1913 it took 14 hours, by 1914 it took 93 minutes.

164

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What was needed less of after the assembly line was implimented?

Skiller workers.

165

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What did the annual car production in 1920 compared to in 1929?

1.6 million in 1920 to 5.6 million in 1929.

166

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What other industries did the car industry have a positive impact on?

Steel, rubber, glass, leather, petrol (7 billion gallons a year).

167

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What did the car industry also increase demand for?

Roads, diners, motels, and petrol stations.

168

Key Question 4: Economic Boom

What are the 8 main causes of the ecomonic boom? (LACK PANTS)

Laissez-Faire.
Advertising.
Credit.
Knowledge.
Position in WW1.
Assembly Line.
New Consumer Goods.
Tariffs.
Share Confidence.

169

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

Who benefitted from 75% of the American economy?

The top 1% richest Americans.

170

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

What percentage of America had no savings and what percentage lived below the poverty line?

80% had no savings and 50% lived below the poverty line.

171

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

What groups of people didn't benefit from the economic boom?

Black Americans, Immigrants, Workers in Older Industries, Rurual Farming Families, and Soldiers Returning from WW1.

172

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

When was there a sudden fall in property prices in Florida?

1926.

173

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

What did people do once they were confident in the American economy?

Speculate and buy shares on the margin.

174

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

What were the three reasons for overproduction in America?

Only small numbers of the population could actually afford the goods.
Factories were producing too much.
Farms were producing too much.

175

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

Why couldn't the government solve the problem of overproduction?

European countries had borrowed money from the USA after WW1.
European countires put their own tariffs on American products.

176

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

How were businesses responding to overproduction in 1929?

They lowered prices, paid lower wages, and sacked workers.

177

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

When did share prices start to fall?

September 1929.

178

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

What did people start to do in October 1929?

Panic and sell their shares.

179

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

On what day was 13 million shares sold during the Wall Street Crash?

Black Thursday 24 October 1929.

180

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

On what day was 16 million shares sold during the Wall Street Crash?

Black Tuesday 29 October 1929.

181

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

How were US Steel shares affected by the Wall Street Crash?

In September 1929 one share was worth 361 cents, in November 1929 one share was worth 150 cents.

182

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

How did unemployment rise as a result of the Wall Street Crash?

From 1.5 million to over 12 million.

183

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

How many banks closed in 1929 and how much money was lost?

659 banks closed, losing $200 million.

184

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

How much did the value of goods in shops fall by?

50%.

185

Key Question 5: The End of Prosperity

How much did the amount of money the USA make a year fall by?

50%.