Flashcards in The West & New South, 1865-1900 Deck (40):
What is another term used to describe western territories?
What is the name given to the Great Plains that supported 15 million buffalo and 250,000 Native Americas. The rush to settle this territory caused the near extermination of the buffalo and serious damage to the environment.
The Great American Desert
Gold was discovered in California in 1848, which caused a flood of immigrants in 1849. Fearing job competition, white settlers pushed the legislature to pass what anti-immigration law?
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
What was a big business in the West, but eventually ended with the arrival of settlers and the invention of barbed wire by Joseph Glidden?
To encourage settlers to move West, this act offered 160 acres in the Great Plains of public land free to any family that settled on it for 5 years. The best land ended up in the hands of railroad companies and speculators.
Homestead Act (1862)
These are farmers who built their homes out of mud bricks on the dry and treeless plains.
This is the term given to Southern blacks who went West.
This is the name of Frederick Jackson Turner's influential thesis (essay) that stressed the importance of the frontier and how it promoted independence and individualism. Caused Americans to be inventive, but Americans were also wasteful toward natural resources.
"The Significance of the Frontier in American History" (1893)
What is the term that refers to the government assigning plains tribes land with boundaries. Indians ignored these boundaries and continued to follow the migrating buffalo wherever they roamed.
Indian Wars broke out with the arrival of thousands of miners, cattlemen, and homesteaders in the West. General George Custer and 200 of his men were killed at this battle.
Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
This terrible event occurred when 200 peaceful Indians were murdered. This ended the Indian Wars.
Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890)
This best selling book was written by Helen Hunt Jackson, which created sympathy for Indians, but most Americans proposed assimilation as the solution: education, training, and becoming Christian.
A Century of Dishonor (1881)
This act in 1887, divided tribal land into plots of 160 acres and U.S. citizenship was granted to those who stayed 25 years. This intended to break up tribal organizations.
Dawes Act (1887)
This movement was the last effort by Native Americans to resist U.S. domination and drive whites from their lands.
Ghost Dance Movement (1890)
The New South's economy was based on what three factors? Despite the improvement, the South remained largely agricultural and was one of the poorest regions in the country.
Capitalism, Industry, Improved Transportation
George Washington Carver, scientist, promoted growing different crops instead of just cash crops. He studied at this school, which was founded by Booker T. Washington.
Tuskegee Institute (1881)
The Farmer's Southern Alliance and the Colored Farmer's National Alliance were two organization that fought for what?
Farmers uniting to solve their economic problems.
What ended in 1877 with the removal of troops from the South, which left Southerners to find their own solutions to social and economic problems. Redeemers used segregation and race to play on the racial fears of whites.
The Supreme Court upheld a Louisiana Law requiring "separate but equal accommodations" for white and black passengers on railroads. This began the era of Jim Crow in 1896.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
This is the term used to describe segregation laws or discrimination laws, which were passed by Southern states and segregation became the norm in all public places.
Jim Crow Laws
Name three discriminatory laws that disenfranchised southern blacks from voting.
Grandfather Clause, Poll Tax, and Literacy Test
Disenfranchisement, segregation and this murderous act left African Americans in the South powerless.
Henry Turner formed the International Migration Society that helped blacks emigrate to which country?
This African American leader was the editor of the Memphis Free Speech and she campaigned against lynching and Jim Crow laws.
Ida B. Wells
This former slave established an industrial and agricultural school in Tuskegee, Alabama.
Booker T. Washington
This speech given by Booker T. Washington in 1895 encouraged blacks to seek economic opportunities rather than political rights. He supported segregation, which would later be attacked by civil rights leaders like W.E.B. Du Bois.
Atlanta Compromise Speech (1895)
List some problems that farmers were facing in the post Civil War era.
1.Big commercial farming (bonanza farms).
2.Increased American production and global competition.
3.High rates for shipping by railroad companies.
This movement 1868 is when farmers finally began to organize to fight back. Organized by Oliver H. Kelley, farmers took political action to protect farmer's rights. Established cooperatives--businesses owned and run by farmers to save costs.
National Grange Movement (1868)
Granger laws were passed to regulate the rates charged by who?
This court case resulted in the decision that a state could regulate businesses such as railroads.
Munn v. Illinois (1877)
This court case resulted in the decision that states could not regulate interstate commerce. Railroad companies raised their long-haul (interstate) rates. Granger laws became nullified.
Wabash v. Illinois (1886)
This act gave the federal government the power to regulate the railroads. Required railroad rates to be "reasonable and just."
Interstate Commerce Act (1886)
This was the first federal regulatory agency, which could investigate discriminatory railroad practices.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Farmer's Alliances in the 1880s were similar to the Grange Movement in which farmers organized for what?
Political Action to solve their economic problems.
This farmer's alliance met in Ocala, Florida and created a platform which would have significant impact years later where a new political party would form. (Populist Party)
National Alliance (1890)
The National Alliance created the Ocala Platform, which were the ideas of the Grange and Farmer's alliances. This Ocala Platform would become apart of which movement?
Populist Movement (Populist Party)
Name some of the reforms that the Populists wanted and listed in their Ocala Platform.
1.Direct election of U.S. senators.
2.Lower tariff rates.
3.Graduated income tax.
4.New banking system.
5.Increase silver into money supply
6.Federal loans to farmers.
Which party would the Populists eventually merge with that would actually cause them to lose elections?
Who would become the leading Populist and eventual presidential candidate?
William Jennings Bryan