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Flashcards in The World of the New Testament Deck (63):

Where did Jesus frequent most often?

Galilee and Judea on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean.


What three land masses jut into the Mediterranean?

Italy, Greece, and Turkey.


How many visits did Paul make to Corinth, the Roman capital of Achaia?

3 visits, spending a total of a year and a half there.


Where did Alexander the Great come from?

The Roman province of Macedonia.


Where would Paul found churches on his second missionary journey?

Philippi and Thessalonica.


Where is modern Turkey located in the Mediterranean?

The easterly most landmass in the northeast corner of the Mediterranean.


Where was Ephesus located?

The Roman province of Asia, as its principle city.


According to Acts, what was the center of the Gentile mission?



Where was Saul from?

Tarsus, 85 miles northwest of Antioch.


What is the "land of Jesus?"

The area of Galilee, Samaria, and Judea.

Also known as the land of Palestine.


Where was the center of Jesus' public ministry?

The region around the Sea of Galilee, and the small fishing village of Capernaum on the north shore.


When did many Judeans move to the region of Galilee?

After the Hasmonean annexation a century before Jesus.


What was the Decapolis?

Generally east and south of the Sea of Galilee.


What is most likely the "city set on a hill" referred to by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount?

A limestone temple found on the eastern shore of Galilee in an area known as the Hippos.


How far south of the Sea of Galilee does the Jordan river flow before emptying into the Dead Sea?

65 miles


How low is the Dead Sea?

1,300 feet below sea level.

The lowest place on earth.


What is the most prominent feature in the land of Jesus?

The Jordan Rift Valley.


Where is the Mount of Olives located in relation to Jerusalem?

To the east.


Where is the Judean wilderness located?

From the Mount of Olives to the Dead Sea the topography drops 1,400 feet. This creates a unique desert climate. 


What political entities was the land divided into in Jesus' time?

Judea in the south and the central area of Samaria - Judea.

Galilee to the north.

East across the Jordan was Perea.

Galilee and Perea was the tetrarchy of Herod Antipas.

North and east of Galilee was the tetrarchy of Philip.

South and east of the Sea of Galilee was the region of Decapolis.


Where is Mount Zion?

A hill west of Jerusalem.


36 - What was the common language of the Roman empire?



37 - During whose reign was Jesus born?

Octavian, would become Augustus and rule as the first Roman emperor from 27 B.C. to A.D. 14.

Augustus's adopted son, Tiberius, would be his successor and would appoint Pontius Pilate as prefect of Judea in A.D. 26.


Why might Paul of had to wait two years in Rome for his trial?

Roman emporer, Nero, murdered his mother, Agrippina, and stayed away from Rome for a year and a half.


38 - When was the massive fire in Rome?

A.D. 64

Nero blamed the Christian community in Rome.


How would Rome rule certain areas?

By forming alliances with local elites.


What is the famous, local elite, family that ruled on behalf of Rome?

The Herodians.


Who ruled in Galilee on Rome's behalf during Jesus' time?

Herod Antipas


What was the standard payment for a day's labor?



Who are the Caesars mentioned in the New Testament?

Only two Caesars are mentioned by name in the gospels - Augustus and Tiberius.

Caesar Augustus, (Julius Caesar was his great uncle and adoptive father) the first Roman Emperor made the decree that a census should be taken of everyone in the empire. This caused Joseph and Mary to leave their home in Nazareth and go to Bethlehem. Their Son Jesus was born in Bethlehem - fulfilling the prediction of Micah the prophet with respect to the birthplace of the Messiah.

Tiberius Caesar is only mentioned to mark the time in history when the word of God came to John the Baptist. He is mentioned on two other occasions by his title "Caesar" but without his name.


Who were the Roman emperors during biblical times?

Julius Caesar

Augustus 31BC to 14AD(actual first emperor)

Tiberius 14AD to 37AD

Caligula 37AD to 41AD

Claudius 41AD to 54AD

Nero 54AD to 68AD




Who was Pontius Pilate?

In 26 A.D. the Roman Emperor Tiberius appointed Pontius Pilate prefect of the Roman provinces of Judaea, Samaria and Idumæa, although Pilate is best known for his leadership of Judaea. While the typical term for a Roman prefect was 1–3 years, Pilate was to hold his post as the fifth Roman procurator for 10 years. In assuming his position, Pontius Pilate succeeded Valerius Gratus.

As a Roman prefect, Pontius Pilate was granted the power of a supreme judge, which meant that he had the sole authority to order a criminal’s execution. His duties as a prefect included such mundane tasks as tax collection and managing construction projects. But, perhaps his most crucial responsibility was that of maintaining law and order. Pontius Pilate attempted to do so by any means necessary. What he couldn’t negotiate he is said to have accomplished through brute force.


When was the Second Temple Period?

From the rebuilding of the temple at Jerusalem following the Babylonian exile of 514 B.C. until the destruction of the temple by the Romans in A.D. 70.



When did the land of Jesus come under Greek rule?

With the conquest of Alexander the Great.

In 336 B.C., Alexander’s father Philip was assassinated. Just 20 years old, Alexander claimed the Macedonian throne and killed his rivals before they could challenge his sovereignty.

He also quashed rebellions for independence in northern Greece. Once he’d cleaned house, Alexander left to follow in his father’s footsteps and continue Macedonia’s world domination.


What does Hanukah celebrate?

The Maccabean revolt of 168 B.C. when the Seleucids were driven out from Jerusalem which allowed the cleansing and rededication of the temple.

The Maccabees were known as Hasmoneans, derived from the name of Hasmon, an ancestor of a Jewish priestly family.


When Rome had enough of the Hasmonean family in 40 B.C., who did they name as King of the Jews?

Herod of Idumea

As a result, many Jews migrated north to settle in Galilee.

Eventually Herod fought his way into Jerusalem and ruled the Jews from 37 - 4 B.C.

During this time he "slaughtered the innocents."


Why was Herod considered "great?"

Because of his massive building projects.

He expanded and rebuilt the temple complex in Jerusalem, making it the largest sacred precint in the entire ancient world.

Aqueducts brought water in.


When did Herod the Great die?

4 B.C.


43 - After Herod the Great died, how did Augustus divide his kingdom?

Between his three sons.

Archelaus -  tetrarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea.

Antipas - tetrarch of Galilee and Perea.

Philip - tetrarch of areas east and north of the Sea of Galilee.


Who was Philip and Herodias's daughter?

Salome, who danced for Antipas, who had married his brother Philip's wife, Herodias.


Who ruled Judea for Rome, serving as prefect for the longest term, from A.D. 26-36?

Pontius Pilate.


Who is the first apostle to die for the faith?

James the brother of John (Acts 12:2).


Who executed the apostle James, the brother of John?

Herod Agrippa


Who is the Sandhedrin?

Jewish religious elites including the high priest.

Rabbinic writings would speak of 71 members.

Like a Jewish supreme court affirming decisions in capital cases.


When was the Jewish revolt during the Second Temple period?

A.D. 66 - 72 A.D.



What six distinct commonalities marked the Jewish religion before the destruction of the temple?

  1. The temple.
  2. The local synagogue.
  3. The festival cycle.
  4. The significance of the Torah.
  5. The theology of monotheism.
  6. Concern for ritual purity.


What was the synagogue?

A "gathering."

An assembly of at least ten men: dedicated buildings for such assemblies came into prominence after the destruction of the temple.


What was the pattern of the rite followed in the synagogue?

Shema, blessings, prayers, readings from the Torah and Prophets, comment on their application, and blessing and eventually a meal was added.


When do Jews begin their days?

At sundown.


What was the chief annual festival?


Fell at the beginning of the wheat harvest, usually April.

The Feast of Weeks came seven weeks later known as Pentecost.


When do the synoptics place the crucifixion?

On the day after the Passover sacrifice.

John places it on the Passover.


What is the codified oral tradition called?

The Mishnah and the Talmud.

Codified around 200 A.D.


Who were the Sadducees?

Elites of the Jewish world.

Descending from the Hasmonean families.

Controlled the high priesthood and ran the temple.

Heavily influenced by Hellenistic philosopy and therefore denied the resurrection and didn't believe in angels.


Who were the Herodians?

Jews with a positive disposition toward the Romans.


Who were the Zealots?

Opposed the Roman occupation and worked to overthrow Roman rule.


When were the Dead Sea Scrolls found?

1947 to 1956

Found in caves near the Dead Sea, near to Khirbet Qumran.

Belonged to the Essenes.



Where are the Jewish opponents to Jesus from?

Judea, the south part of the country.


Who are the Samaritans?

Between the Galileans and the Judeans.

Likely descended from remnants of the northern tribes who intermarried with the locals populace.

Own version of the Torah, a separate temple and sacrificial system.


What is the Diaspora?

Scattering of Jews througout the Roman world.


What is the Apocrypha?

Intertestimental writings.


What were the people called who adhered to Jesus teachings after His resurrection?

"The Way."


What is the critical context for understanding the stories and teachings of the New Testament?

The geographical, cultural, political, and religious worlds.


What did Jesus live and die as?

A Jew.