Flashcards in Theme 1 Deck (104):
What did all the New testament writers agree?
That Jesus was the son of God
Which two gospels gave information about Jesus came into the world?
Matthew and Luke
What are Matthew and Luke's accounts on Jesus known as?
The birth narritave
What does Matthew's Gospel focus on?
Joseph's account. Following an un-named angel's announcement to him of Mary's pregnancy.
-Joseph marries Mary and the baby Jesus is born in a house (Matthew 2:!1)
Who does Matthew say the first non-jews to set eyes on Jesus were?
Magi/ Wise men who followed a star 'from the east'
What were we NOT told about the wise men?
-how many there were
-that they were kings
Why is it assumed that there ere three kings?
There were three gifts brought to baby Jesus
Why is it assumed that these wise men were kings?
Psalms 72:11 says "May all kings fall down before him
What does Matthew record the wise men did?
The wise men duped Herod and how he reacted by killing all the children under two years old. Joseph is then forewarned and flees with Mary and Jesus to egypt
What Luke's Gospel focus on?
Mary;s account. A named angel Gabriel tells her of her pregnancy. (the Annunciation)
-there is no mention of marriage
-Mary visits her cousin Elizabeth who is also pregnant and expresses her joy in the hymn known as the Magnificant
-Elizabeth gives birth to John the Baptist
What made it necessary for Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem to be registered?
Caesar Augustus called a census
Where was Jesus born and why?
In a manger because there was no room in the inn
Who visited Jesus and why?
Shepherds as they were informed by angels of Jesus' birth
What happened 8 days after Jesus' birth?
Jesus is presented in the Temple in Jerusalem and mysteriously recognized as the Messiah by Simeon and Anna
What is the name of the hymn Simeon speaks?
What is the Annunciation?
Gabriel's announcement to Mary
What are the differences in Matthew and Luke's account?
-Matthew writes from Joseph's viewpoint while Luke writes from Mary's
-Matthew records Mary and Joseph's marriage, appearance of the star, and the visit of the wise men
-Matthew has extensive old testament quotations while Luke does not
-Luke mentions the Jesus was born in a manger while Matthew speaks of a house
-Luke records Mary's visit to Elizabeth, the birth of John the baptist, the visit of the shepherds, and the presentation of Christ at the temple
Why do many people doubt the historicity of the accounts?
Because of the amazing events that they claim accompanied Jesus' birth
What is redaction Criticism
The theory that new testament writers altered existing material about Jesus to suit their own agenda
Where did redaction criticism begin?
Germany in the late 1940's
What does redaction criticism assume?
That the original traditions about Jesus circulated as independent units in the early church
Why did Gospel writers chose the material they wanted?
To arrange it to suit their own theological interest and make a theological point
Who is Matthew's gospel seemed to be aimed at?
Why does Matthew tell the story of Jesus' birth from Josephs viewpoint?
To prove that Jesus was connected with Israel's legendary King David through Joseph and that he is the fulfillment of the Old Testament revelations
What is Matthew convinced?
That Jesus came into the world not only for Jews but for all people.
Who does Luke's gospel seemed to be aimed at?
Why does Luke tell the story of Jesus' birth from Mary's viewpoint?
Because he is less anxious than Matthew to establish a connection between Jesus and King David
What does Luke's gospel show?
Sympathy for those who were marginalized in the society of his time, like women
What does Luke emphasize in his gospel?
That Jesus brought salvation to the poor and needy and that the grace of God is bestowed on the underpriviledged and downtrodden
What does Incarnation mean?
God becoming flesh in Jesus
What does the doctrine of incarnation express?
-the belief that Jesus Christ was God in the human form.
-Jesus' life on earth as only a short period in the story of who who had always been and will be
-his birth in bethlehem was not the beginning and his death on the cross at Calvary the end
-asserts that while Jesus lived on Earth people found themselves in the presence of God in the flesh (John 1:14 the word became flesh)
What is the hypostatic union?
the combination of divine and human nature of the one person Jesus
How is Jesus fully God?
He is believed to have existed from the beginning with God and was God
How is Jesus fully Man?
He was a man of flesh and blood and was born the same way any other person was born. Had the same experiences of every other human ie walking, talking, eating, sleeping, hunger, weakness, temptation, death
What is Kenosis?
The greek word meaning "to make empty"
Where does kenosis appear?
Paul'sa letter to the Philippians (2:7) where he says that Jesus, 'though he was in the form of God did not regard equality with God, as something to be exploited, but EMPTIED himself, taking the form of a slave, being born in human likeness'
What does emptiness consist of?
-A preincarnate self-limitation by Jesus- taking the form of a Slave
-self-emptying of his own will as a human being and submitting entirely to the will of God
-the kenotic theory is an indication of God's will and Jesus' ethic of sacrifice
What does resurrection mean?
Comes from a Latin word which means to rise again
What do Christians believe?
That following Jesus' death on the cross and burial, he rose again from the dead and for a period of forty days appeared to many of his followers
What is the Chiasm?
A style of writing that repeats similar ideas in reverse sequence (ABCBA)
What are the series of episodes that occurred in john 20?
-John "saw and believed" (20:8)
-Mary comes to believe when she hears Jesus call her name (20:16)
-The disciples recognize Jesus, and receive the Holy Spirit (20:22)
-Thomas believes when he is allowed to touch Jesus' wounds (20:28)
-John says that those who read this evidence will believe (20:31)
What does John record about Thomas?
That h was not present when Jesus fir appeared to the disciples and when the told him they'd seen Jesus he didn't believe them. A week later they were in a locked room (20:26)and Jesus appeared before them and Thomas believes after he feels Jesus' wounds(20:28)
What happens in John 21:1-14?
Jesus appears to the disciples by the Sea of Galilee and tells them to catch fish from the right side of the boat and they catch many
What happens in John 21:15-23
Jesus commissions Peter to shepherd his people
What happens in John 21:24?
John's testimony is confirmed and explains that he is responsible for what was written, not for writing it.
Where is Paul's understanding of the resurrection found?
1 corinthians 15
What does Paul tell us in Philippians 1:21-24?
That because of the resurrection 'dying is gain' and he longs 'to be with christ'
What do some argue about what Paul says?
That it suggests that at death we are immediately with Christ
What does Paul accept in 1 Corinthians 15?
That the resurrection of Jesus was an objective fact and does so on the basis of his own experience
What is Paul's experience?
In Acts 9:1-20 we read how the risen Jesus appeared to Paul on journey to Damascus to persecute Christians in that city
What does Paul go on to argue?
(1 Corinth 15:12-19) Christian believes are resurrected too and the proof of their resurrection lies in Jesus' own resurrection
If there is no resurrection then...
Jesus himself was not resurrected
If Jesus was not resurrected then...
The Christian faith would not only be futile, because those who have died 'have perished', but untruthful as well as it would be founded upon a lie. In conclusion Paul says Jesus has been raised.
How does Paul connect The Fall of Adam to Jesus' death?
Adam disobeyed God in Genesis 3 and brought death into the world. Because of this God sent the perfect man (Jesus) to bring resurrection.
How does Paul use the analogy of the seed planting?
The body that is planted in the earth is perishable, weak, and physical. The body that is raised is imperishable, strong, and spiritual. The resurrection body therefore excels over the earthly body.
Why does Paul use the analogy?
In his teaching in Luke 20:36, the resurrection body is a new and different body
What is resurrection NOT the same as?
What is resuscitation?
To return from the dead exactly as they were when they were alive
What evidence is there to prove that Jesus was RESURRECTED not RESUSCITATED?
-Jesus appeared 'in another form' (Mark 16:12)
-Mary Magdalene failed to recognize him (John 20:14)
-The disciples didn't recognize him on the Emmaus Road (Luke 24:16)
-He could walk through Locked doors (John 20:19)
-He could vanish from sight (Luke 24:31)
Who was Rudolf Bultmann?
A German theologian who argued that all that is necessary for Christian belief is that Jesus lived, preached,, and died by crucifixtion
What did Bultmann argue?
-There was a need to demythologize the New testament
-to interpret it in terms that modern readers can understand
What does Bulmann define a 'myth' as?
'The report of an event or occurrence in which supernatural, superhuman powers or persons are at work'
What does Bultmann say a myth is used to do?
A way in which people attempt:
-to explain the world in which they live and their existence in it
-to explain the divine in human terms
What is classified as a myth?
Jesus' virgin birth
What does Bultmann say about the New Testament?
Since it uses mythological terminology of their time, it is impossible for modern readers to believe their accounts without discarding all modern intellect and knowledge
How does Bultmann attempt to interpret the New Testament?
IN such a way that changes it's 'mythological flavour' but retains its meaning
What does Bultmann argue about the resurrection?
That the resurrection was not a historical event- that is was a myth
What was Bultmann say the resurrection was designed for?
Designed to sustain faith.
What does Bultmann accept?
Accepts that the earliest disciples believed that it was true
What does Bultmann about Jesus?
That Jesus is the Son of God, not in a literal sense but in the sense that he is the expression of God. What God had to say he initiated in Jesus
What does Bultmann say about belief in the resurrection?
That belief in the resurrection in unnecessary to the Christian faith.
What does Bultmann write about the resurrection?
"if the resurrection were a historical fact, faith would become superfluous (unnecessary). What is decisive is not that Jesus came to life again but that he is, for you, the Risen One. The one who was crucified is alive again if you see him as such withe the eyes of faith"
What does Bultmann say about Modern Christians?
That Modern christians cannot accept the resurrection with integrity because:
-it can never be proved
-even if it could be it could not in itself give meaning to the event of the crucifiction
What does Bultmann say about the resurrection in its demythologized form?
The resurrection in its demythologized form is seen as the realization that the cross was not a defeat but a victory. The disciples suddenly realized that when he suffered death, Jesus was already the Son of God, therefore his death by itself was a victory over the power of death. The Lord had given himself over to death and had thereby conquered it
What did the crucifixion of Jesus contain?
The resurrection. There was no second historical event
Where does victory come through?
The cross. Faith in the resurrection is really the same thing as faith in the saving efficacy of the cross
Where does faith in the saving efficacy of the cross come from?
Through faith 'in the word of preaching'
Where does preaching originate from?
The rise of belief in the disciples
What is easter about?
Not about the arising of Jesus, but of the faith of the early church
Who is N.T Wright?
An english theologian
What does Wright argue about the resurrection
Argues the Jesus' resurrection marks the beginning of a restoration of creation that he will complete upon his return
What is Wright's first argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
There is no evidence in Greek thought of any belief in resurrection
What is Wright's second argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
-Jewish thought on the subject was confused.
-There was a belief that some Jewish heroes would be raised from the dead
What is Wright's third argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
It was from this background that the early Christians emerged, saying that Jesus was the Messiah. The proof that he has been raised from the dead
What is Wright's fourth argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
It is clear that the Gospel accounts of the resurrection are about an event that happened at some interval after Jesus' death
What is Wright's fifth argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
It is not simply a flowery way of talking about him 'going to Heaven when he died'. Jesus was not resurrected to heaven'. It was forty days after the resurrection that he was exalted to heaven
What is Wright's sixth argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
In the Gospel Narratives we find that Jesus' body is not merely a 'spiritual' presence, nor merely resuscitated, but transformed
What is Wright's seventh argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
-In John's Gospel, Jesus invites the disciples to touch him to make sure he is a real human being
-But at the same time, he appears and disappears
-John is telling stories about how Jesus' body was now significantly different with new properties
What is Wright's eighth argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
-In early Christianity, belief in resurrection is much more sharply focused than in Judaism
-Resurrection will be an act of new creation
-It will not be a simple return to the same sort of body as before nor will it be a disembodied bliss
-it will involve the gift of a new body with different properties
What is Wright's ninth argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
-This new identity is at present kept safe by God in heaven
-At the moment of resurrection it will be brought from heaven to earth
-renewed bodies need a renewed earth
-this is what the new testament promises
What is Wright's tenth argument in support of the truth of Jesus' resurrection?
Early Christian belief splits the resurrection in two. For Paul, it takes two phases
What are the two phases the resurrection contain?
First the messiah, then his coming to all people
What is the Christian Bible?
A collection of sacred books bound together in two volumes known as the Old and New Testament
What was the Old Testament originally written in?
Who was the Old Testament sacred to?
The sacred scripture of the Jewish religion as well as being sacred to Christians
How man Old Testament books does the Protestant Bible have?
39 Old Testament books, the same as in the Hebrew Bible
What was the Old Testament?
A book written and edited by many authors over a period of many centuries.
What does the Old Testament tell?
Tells the story of God's engagement with the people of Israel from the earliest times until their return of Jerusalem from exile in Babylon
Who was the Bible used by?
What was the New Testament written originally in?
How many books does the New Testament have?
27 books, each one focusing on Jesus
What is in the New Testament?
-Four Gospels which tell the story of Jesus' life and ministry
-The book of Acts which records the founding of the early church
-A collection of the 21 epistles which are letters to various churches (14 of them written by Paul)
-A book of visions (revelations) by an early church leader
How can the bible be read?
as great poetry, as a law book, or a history book, or as a basis for theological reflection