THEME #1: Liberalism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in THEME #1: Liberalism Deck (15):

How will you organise an essay on liberalism?

1) Liberalism as Philosophy
2) Key Ideas/Thinkers of Liberalism during this era
3) How Liberalism Manifested during this era


1) How does liberalism and conservatism differ?

Liberalism is progressive and is more optimistic because liberals have more faith in the human capacity for improvement


1) How is liberalism and conservatism similar?

- Reject outright social engineering
- Social change is organic
- Opposed to the logic of revolution


1) How did John Stuart Mill describe liberals' (and conservatives') view toward revolution, and in what texts?

On Liberty
- "Neither accepts the right of a person or polity to impose radical utopian designs on society, and neither proposes a scheme to rid the world of evil."


2) What were the key ideas of liberalism during this era?

- Constitutional monarchy & representative government
- Restriction/abolition of aristocratic rights/privileges
- Separation of church and state
- Civil rights and liberties
- Economic liberalism
- 'Progress'


2) What were the four main strands/thinkers of liberalism during this era?

- Victorian British liberalism
- Bentham
- John Stuart Mill
- Adam Smith


2) What was the Victorian British strand of liberalism?

- Thought they had perfected the liberal model
- More liberty and equality
- Monarch reigned rather than ruled
- 'Voting Reform' acts achieved suffrage for all males and helped fight corruption


2) What was Bentham's strand of liberalism?

- Institutions that focused on utility
- 'Pleasure principle' - aim of society is to achieve pleasure
- Purpose of politics is to advance that well-being


2) What is Bentham's idea of pleasure in his utilitarianism strand of liberalism?

The wellbeing, happiness and social advancement of individuals.


2) What is John Stuart Mill's strand of liberalism?

- Liberty was the organising principle of society
- Individual liberty still needs to be kept in check
- The peace, prosperity and order of society takes priority over your freedoms


2) What is Adam Smith's strand of liberalism?

Economic liberalism.
- Invisible hand
- Free market


3) How was liberalism brought forward by the 1789 revolution?

The four ideas from the 'legacies of the french revolution theme';
- Representative government, restriction/abolition of aristocratic privileges, limitations on power of the church, civil rights/liberties


3) How was liberalism seen in the Restoration?

Liberal ideas were fundamental in the resistance against the Restoration as the restive working class and intelligentsia were inspired by liberalism.


3) How was liberalism seen in the revolution of 1848?

Liberalism was the guiding idea of this revolution
- Many liberal ideas hadn't been satisfied by the 1830 revolution and continued to haunt
- Less radical than 1789 but still pretty major
- Called for constitution, free market, elected assembly etc.


3) What broader effects did the ideas of liberalism in the revolution of 1848 have?

The ideas of the revolution (liberalism) was contagious
- 1848 Venice: movement to overthrow the Austrians in power in favour of republicanism and unification