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Flashcards in Theme 3 Deck (214):
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What is birth rate?

The number of births per year per 1,000 people

1

What's death rate?

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people

2

what is population growth rate?

the difference between birth and death rate

3

what is life expectancy?

the age you are expected to live to

4

what is adult literacy?

the percentage of the adult population that can read and write

5

what is infant mortality?

the number of infants that die before their first birthday per 1,000

6

what is GNP per capita?

The total amount of sales of products and services divided by the population

7

what is an MEDC?

A country that is usually found in the north and is more developed than other people

8

what is a LEDC?

a country that is usually found in the south and is less developed that other countries

9

what is standard of living?

a measure of someones ability to buy things

10

What is HDI?

Human development index - uses a combination of GNP, literacy rate and life expectancy to give and overall value between 0-1 (0=worst, 1=best)

11

what is quality of life?

a measurement of how happy people are with their life and environment

12

what is the brandt line?

an imaginary line separating the rich north from the poor south

13

What does the rich (developed) north have?

high GDP
Low birth rate
long life expectancy
low percentage of agriculture
high percentage of services
high literacy rates
high percentage of urban dwellers

14

what does the poor (undeveloped) south have?

Low GDP
short life expectancy
high percentage of agriculture
low percentage of services
low literacy levels
low percentage of urban dwellers

15

what are reasons why a country might be rich?

industrialisation
medical advances
technology
education

16

what are reasons why a country is poor?

natural disasters
civil war
corrupt government
diseases
climate

17

what is a newly industrialised country (NIC)? Give an example

a term to describe countries that went through rapid industrialisation in the 1980s

Hong Kong
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan

18

What is a BRIC economy?

these are the countries that have rapid rates of industrialisation at the moment

Brazil
Russia
India
China

19

What are centrally planned economies (CPEs)

Countries strictly controlled by the government(socialist). Living standards are higher than LEDCs although freedom of speech is limited

North Korea
Cuba

20

What are oil rich countries?

they are countries that are very rich in terms of GNP per capita although it may not be evenly distributed. Without the oil many would be LEDCs.

Saudi Arabia
Kuwait
United Arab Emirates

21

what is sustainable development?

"development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" - United Nations

22

Where is Karnataka?

South West India
Has a coastline on the Indian Ocean
Roughly 900 miles South West of Delhi

23

what is the life expectancy in India?

65 years

24

what is the GNP per capita in India?

$1500

25

what is the adult literacy rate in India?

75%

26

what is the infant mortality rate in India?

44.6 per 1,000 per year

27

what is the human development index for India?

0.554

28

what is the population of Karnataka?

65 million

29

what percentage of Karnataka's population live in rural areas?

65% 42 million

30

what problems are farmers in Karnataka facing?

farmer suicides have risen from 3 in 2011 to 7 in the first few months of 2012
cannot coping with raising prices of fertilisers and pesticides
cannot cope with high input cost and low returns
drought
lack of money means their children cannot go to school and then many families become illitrate

31

What problems have droughts caused in Karnataka?

the 26 lakes where a rich source of water but where overused by farming for irrigation this has had a negative impact on the ecosystem with a decreased biodiversity
the journey for water is long and tiring
water often contaminated with cholera leading to illness
this prevents people working and going to school

32

what problems do Karnataka face in regards to education?

a law was put in place in 2009 stating every child between 6-14 must go to school
class sizes have swelled
school struggle to afford the energy and food costs
enforcing laws in rural areas is difficult some children still don't go to school

33

how has the chronic electricity shortage effected Karnataka?

some areas have no lighting
the cost of laying electrical pylons to small communities is too much
shops have to shut early hindering profits
children struggle to study in the evening, relying on expensive kerosene lamps

34

what is the name of the company providing solar power to the people in rural Karnataka?

selco solar energie

35

how many homes do selco supply electricity to?

40,000 families

36

how long do the solar panels last?

at least 20 years

37

how much light does the solar power system provide?

12volts (40 watts)
4 lights
4 hours a day

38

how much does each solar panel unit cost?

$400

39

what are the advantages of using solar power?

shops can work later - more money
don't have to use expensive kerosene lamps
saves 50 rupees a month
improved standard of living
provides jobs
uses local labour
sustainable

40

what is biomass made from?

farm waste

41

where are biomass stoves being used?

schools

42

what type of fuel has biomass replaced?

liquid petroleum gas

43

what are the advantages of using biomass?

enhances food quality - nutrition
farmers make money from their waste - 4000-5000 rupees
carbon neutral
renewable

44

what is and non government organisation (NGO)?

an organisation involved in development
they aren't linked to the government
often charities eg. Red Cross/oxfam

45

what non government organisation (NGO) was involved with the solar power development in Karnataka and how did they help SELCO?

Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF)
worked with SELCO to develop solar powered electric light in Karnataka

46

sustainable development often involves appropriate/intermediate technology but what is it?

technology which is appropriate to the needs, knowledge and wealth of the people and is suitable for the environment in which they live

47

how has the new borehole and water pump helped in Karnataka

wash clothes
don't suffer from diseases
better quality of life

48

what is interdependence?

the way in which some countries rely on each other
eg. trade

49

what is the secondary sector?

industry that makes things out of raw materials
eg. car manufacturing

50

what is a brain drain?

the emigration of highly trained people from a country

51

what is a tertiary sector?

industry that provided a service
eg. shops, healthcare and schools

52

what is primary sector?

industry that involves extracting natural resources
eg.mining, fishing, forestry and agriculture

53

what is globalisation?

the flow of people, ideas, money and goods that link distant places and citizens together

54

list examples of flows that link countries together and make them interdependant

tourist
exports
migration
information
repayment on loans
TV and media broadcast
imports
internet
loans
business investments

55

How are countries interdependent?

Trade - the exchange of goods and services between countries
The growth of multi-national companies (MNCs)
eg. Microsoft and Sony
Changing technology - the internet has made it easier to communicate and buy products and services
Air travel have become faster and cheaper

56

what are the advantages for the UK of students coming to Britain to study in schools and universities?

Foreign income
learn about different cultures
supports schools and university places
best brains in the world

57

what are the advantages for the UK of the NHS employing thousands of doctors and nurses from LEDCs?

reduces waiting times
stops shortages in medical staff

58

what are the advantages for the UK of TV programmes in regards to interdependence?

money to finance more projects and jobs in the UK
UK viewers get access to programs from across the world such as sport and film

59

in regards to interdependence what are the advantages for the UK of tourism?

tourists to UK spend money

60

in regards to interdependence what are the advantages for the UK of loans?

UK earns money from financial services

61

in regards of interdependence what are the advantages for the UK of economic migrants?

do dirty, dangerous, unpopular, low paid jobs
eg.farming

62

in regards to interdependence what are the disadvantages for the UK of students coming to study in Britain?

may change atmosphere of British educational institutions
may take places from British students

63

in regards to interdependence what are the disadvantages for the UK of the NHS employing thousands of doctors and nurses from LEDCs?

possible language difficulties
may keep wage rates low

64

in regards to interdependence what are the disadvantages for the UK of tv programmes?

UK buys a lot of TV programmes made in other countries so less money spent on UK TV programs

65

in regards to interdependence what are the disadvantages for the UK of tourism?

affected by world recession
terrorism

66

in regards to interdependence what are the disadvantages for the UK of loans?

affected by world recession as banking systems closely linked throughout the world

67

in regards to interdependence what are the disadvantages for the UK of economic migrants?

may keep wages low eg. plumber
local people live of benefits and do not take a job

68

in regards of independence what are the advantages for LEDCs of students studying un Britain?

some of the population is educated to world class standard

69

in regards to interdependence what are the advantages for LEDCs of the NHS employing thousands of doctors and nurses from LEDCs?

sends money home
learn most modern techniques

70

in regards to interdependence what are advantages for LEDCs of TV programmes?

countries become more aware of different cultures

71

in regards to interdependence what are the advantages for LEDCs of tourism?

money spent by tourists creates jobs in a variety of ways
infrastructure improves, roads, airports

72

in regards to interdependence what are advantages for LEDCs of loans?

able to invest in industry, schools, hospitals

73

in regards to interdependence what are advantages for LEDCs of economic migrants?

money sent back

74

in regards to interdependence what are disadvantages for LEDCs of students moving to study in Britain?

best brains leave and might not come back (brain drain)
less money for schools and universities as wealthy leave

75

in regards to interdependence what are disadvantages for LEDCs of the NHS employing thousands of doctors and nurses from LEDCs?

brain drain
well qualified people leave
fewer doctors and nurses in poor countries where they are needed desperately

76

in regards to interdependence what are disadvantages for LEDCs of TV programmes?

cultural shock

77

in regards to interdependence what are disadvantages for LEDCs of tourism?

culture shock
local people may only get low paid jobs and not managerial

78

in regards to interdependence what are disadvantages for LEDCs of loans?

may get into debt

79

in regards to interdependence what are disadvantages for LEDCs of economic migrants?

people with better education tend to leave (brain drain)

80

how is employment divided in terms of sectors?

55% primary
17% secondary
28% tertiary

81

what are the reasons for India becoming and interdependent country?

foreign companies invest heavily in India eg. Pepsi and BP
India is a stable democracy, has freedom to trade, communicate, and express eg. Bollywood
12% of populations can speak english, they can communicate with with english speaking countries so they can work in places like call centres for western country companies eg. HSBC
India has a large and well educated workforce, attractive to foreign companies who want to take advantage of their skills
Indian government offers incentives for business to locate to the country

iNDIA

82

what are the negative effects of India becoming interdependent?

widening the gap between the uneducated subsistence farmers in rural areas and people in cities
rural to urban migration, stimulated by pull factor, means the city cannot cope with the influx of new arrivals: huge shanty towns around most of the cities
increasing levels of pollution due to increased car ownership
Indian doctors migrate to MEDCs which pay high wages
BRAIN DRAIN

83

what are the advantages of India becoming a interdependent country?

more people paying taxes to government that are spent on schools, medical care road etc
higher standard of living
12th largest county in the world for broadband subscribers
7% of people use the internet
2.3 million people employed creating 40% of GNP and 30% of India's export earnings
higher wages means more disposable income
more employment opportunities in tertiary sector and knowledge based industries
Indians who work abroad sent money home

84

what is the quaternary industry?

these industries incorporate a high degree of research and technology in their processes and employ highly qualified people
eg. bio technology, computer programming

85

why did Nissan open a car factory in Sunderland?

there is a huge market for cars in Europe
by building in the UK they avoid EU trade restrictions from importing from outside the EU
British government provided 20 million pounds and lowered taxes and 20 million from european bank

86

why were the British government keen to invest in Nissan building a car factory in Sunderland?

it was an area of high unemployment (ship yards and coal mines had shut down causing a circle of decline)
allowed Nissan to buy land at cheaper agricultural land price rather than more expensive industrial land prices

87

what about the land site made it appealing to Nissan?

Large area of flatland
available at a lower price
room for expansion onto farmland(greenfield)
close to Newcastle airport

88

what about the labour made it appealing to Nissan to locate to Sunderland?

skilled, reliable and loyal labour force
large unemployed labour force in local residential areas (Hyton Castle)
access to A19 and M1 for employees

89

what about the potential market made Sunderland appealing to Nissan?

Large market for Japanese cars in the UK and European Union

90

what about the transport links made Sunderland appealing to Nissan?

Newcastle airport
excellent access to A19 road and M1 motorway for goods and employees
River Wear to transport cars to the port of Sunderland 10km east away

91

what are the inputs needed for the car industry?

car parts
workforce
money
electricity

92

what processes are needed in the car industry?

car assembly
car testing

93

what are the outputs in the car industry?

finished cars
profits

94

how were local residents affected by the car plant?

6000 jobs
more disposable income
increased standard of living
some unhappy with increased noise and traffic

95

how are local businesses affected by the car plant?

benefit from providing services to plant eg. cleaning
more disposable income
able to expand and open new businesses due to increased demand (MULTIPLIER EFFECT)

96

how the local government affected by the car plant?

increased revenue from businesses and increased employment means more taxes
have money to improve services in the area eg. roads

97

how are the national government affected by the car plant?

helps lower the unemployment problem in the north east
higher exports help balance net trade

98

how are environmentalists affected by the car plant?

concerned about expanding onto greenfield site (green land)
Nissan invested in 6 wind turbines to generate 6% of power
this reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 4,000 tonnes per year

99

what is a multinational company/transnational companies?

a business that has its facilities and other assets in at least one country other than its home country
usually have centralised head offices where they coordinate global management

100

explain the steps of the circle of decline

1. industry closes
2. unemployment
3. people have less disposable income
4. less demand for services eg. cinemas so they close
5. less money to the local government from business and council tax
6. area looks run down as less money is spent on improving it
7. the area becomes a less desirable industrial location

101

explain the multiplier effect

1. new industry is set up
2. creates jobs
3. people have more disposable income
4. more demand for luxury industries so more open eg.cinemas
5. more money to local government from income and business taxes
6. more money it spent on improving services
7. the area becomes a more desirable industrial location

102

why did Nissan location to Chennai?

labour costs are lower in India - makes Nissan more competitively priced
there is a rapid growth in car ownership in India - big domestic market
Chennai has a population of 4.4 million - potential labour
Chennai is a city on the east coast - materials can be transported easily

103

what are the local and national advantages to India of Nissan locating to Chennai?

200,000 cars are made every year here
directly employes 3,000 people
indirectly employes 6,000 people
Nissan pays money on its profits to local government
jobs provide decent wages - increased standard of living and disposable income causing the multiplier effect
Nissan has improved road access to the area
the plant has great health and safety
the plant is environmentally friendly - 70% of the rain used has been rainwater harvested
provides formal jobs so tax is paid to local government

104

what are the disadvantages to India as a result of Nissan locating to Chennai?

employees being exploited - not paid as well as in MEDCs
the plant has increased traffic and pollution to an already overcrowded city
some of the profits go back to Japan (called LEAKAGE) not all money stays in India
producing cars requires a high amount of energy causing pollution
if demand for cars falls the plant could close causing a circle of decline
environmentalists are concerned that more car ownership will increase global warming and could negatively affect the climate in India

105

what is trade?

the exchange of goods and services between countries

106

how are trade agreements and disputes settled?

through an international body called the "world trade organisation" (WTO)

107

what is free trade?

the exchange of goods with no trade restrictions eg. tariffs or quotas

108

what is a quota?

a physical limit on the amount of imports that are allowed to enter the country

109

what is meant by the term trade bloc?

countries that can trade freely between each other
eg. EU and the "North America free trade" or NAFTA

110

when was The Fairtrade Foundation established as an independent certification body?

1992

111

what could the Fairtrade Foundation do as an independent certification body?

license the FAIRTRADE mark to products that meet international standards

112

who set the the international fairtrade standards?

Fairtrade Labelling Organisations International (FLO)

113

what does the fairtrade mark guarantee?

the farmer receives a payment that is agreed and stable - higher SOL
the farmer also receives an additional social premium
aims to develop a long term trading partnership with the producers

114

what is Kuapa Kokoo?

a co-operative of cocoa farmers in Ghana

115

who do Kuapa Kokoo sell some of their cocoa bean crop to and what do they do with it?

Divine Chocolate Ltd. (UK)
makes fairtrade products such as divine and dubble

116

what are the main benefits to Kuapa Kokoo agreement to sell their cocoa beans to Divine Chocolate Ltd?

the farmers receive and extra $150 per tonne of cocoa, this is about 10 cent more than the usual price on the world market
they receive a social premium so they can fund community project eg. schools
farmers receive training to help them deal with pest or diseases eg. black pod
members of the co-operative can borrow small amounts of money from a micro-credit bank known as Kuapa Kokoo credit union
the farmers are elected as trusted member of the village to weigh and record their cocoa beans. making trade more offical, people more accountable
Kuapa Kokoo are shareholders in Divine Chocolate Ltd, profits from sales go back into Ghana projects

117

what are the problems for cocoa farmers in Ghana?

price of cocoa is falling, earning less than 60p a day
cost of living is increasing

118

describe the steps of the greenhouse effect

1. the suns heat passes through greenhouse gases
2. the Earth is warmed
3. some heat is trapped by the greenhouse gases
4. some heat escapes
5. increase in greenhouse gases by burning fossil fuels and cutting down trees
6. less heat is able to escape
7. more heat is trapped and the Earth warms up even more

119

what are the 4 greenhouse gases and their percentages?

nitrous oxide - 5%
methane - 10%
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - 13%
carbon dioxide - 72%

120

where is nitrous oxide made?

is emitted from car exhausts, power stations and fertilisers

121

where is carbon dioxide made?

is produced by power stations, factories and road vehicles that burn fossil fuels
deforestation and the burning of rain forests

122

where are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) made?

from aerosols, plastic foam and fridges, are the most damaging of the greenhouse gases

123

where is methane made?

is released from waste dumps, farms and rice fields

124

describe the location of Iceland

an island in Northern Europe
837km north west of Scotland
in the North Atlantic Ocean
just below the arctic circle

125

what is the capital of Iceland?

Reykjavik

126

what are Iceland's main industries?

tourism
fishing
IT
geothermal heating
hydroelectric power from melting ice

127

why is Iceland making hydroelectric power only a short term positive?

more water flowing due to melting ice but eventually there wont be any ice to melt

128

what percentage of Iceland is covered in glaciers?

11%

129

how much have the temperature increased by in the last 200 years?

1.4 degrees

130

what type of climate does Iceland have?

cool maritime climate
the Gulf Stream current moves north to Iceland so it is mild and wet in the south of Iceland
in the north it is cooler and dryer

131

how much is the temperature supposed to rise by, by the end of the century?

2 degrees

132

when are the glaciers expected to have disappeared by?

in 200 years

133

when the glaciers start retreating?

1990

134

how much of the hydroelectric power created is a surplus?

75%

135

what is isostatic rebound in terms of Iceland?

the land is bouncing back from having the weight of the heavy ice removed
it is now much higher than sea level
but the sea level could rise much quicker than the ground

136

why is Iceland ideal for computer servers?

they can be kept from overheating from Iceland's cool climate
also the surplus of electricity makes it cheaper

137

is Iceland likely to flood?

yes

138

what are the positive impacts of Iceland's climate change?

it is greener, plant growth is slowing down soil erosion
barley has increased by 18 times, improves food security, they don't need to import as much
increased employment in Akureyri due to increase in exports
higher population
other industries open, increased SOL, multiplier effect
Icelanders are adaptable and resourceful

139

what are the negative impacts of Iceland's climate change

population growth is too rapid - pressure on services
shipping from Akureyri could ruin ecosystems
increased chances of shipping accidents eg. oil spills damaging fishing and tourism industries
no national adaptation scheme
not taking climate change seriously

140

what percentage of Iceland's GNP comes from fishing?

40%

141

describe the changes in Iceland`s fishing industry

due to the warming sea sea mackerel move north to Iceland
Icelanders are fishing them
EU set a quota on how many they are allowed to fish

142

what is Iceland's population?

320,000

143

where does Iceland's prevailing wind come from?

warm moist wind from the south west
crossed the Atlantic Ocean and the North Atlantic drift making warm and moist

144

what current affects the south and west of Iceland?

Irminger current - a warm sea current

145

where is the coldest part of Iceland?

central highland (vatnajäkull)
snowfall adds to the ice caps

146

how does Iceland's climate vary?

north - drier (500mm) and colder (Jan -2.2 degrees) because its in a rain shadow

south - wetter (1600mm) and warmer (Jan 1.3 degrees)

147

how does Iceland's climate affect farming?

only 1% of Iceland can be used for farming
too cold for wheat, grass grown for hay to feed sheep
farmers overcome the climate by farming in glass houses heated by geothermal heat
rural to urban migration resulting in low property prices in rural areas

148

how has Iceland's climate effected tourism?

seasonal - most visit in the short summer
growing industry and very important

149

how has Iceland's climate affected transport?

internal flights easier than driving in winter
ice and snow make mountain roads impassable in the winter
mountain roads are dangerous in winter as vehicles have to cross rivers filled with melted water from glaciers

150

how has Iceland's climate affected energy?

rainfall and snow melt added water to Icelands large rivers - many use this to produce hydroelectric power
cheap energy has attracted US companies who have built aluminium works

151

what are some domestic solutions for climate change?

recycle
use energy saving light bulbs
turn the heating down
double glaze the windows
lower the temperature on the washing machine
shower instead of bathing
cycle or walk
insulate your home
don't leave things on stand by
use a LED TV
keep fridges closed
public transport
car share

152

what is green tax?

a tax placed on energy bills so that money can be invested in cleaner renewable energies
proving unpopular in the UK due to the rising energy prices

153

what is the kyoto protocol?

an international agreement (USA didn't sign) to set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

154

where is `cap and trade` used?

in the US and EU

155

what is cap and trade?

countries are set a limit to how much greenhouse gas emission they are allowed (carbon credits)
if they have credits left over they can sell them to countries that aren't going to meet their limit

156

what is the problem with cap and trade?

the original cap was set depending on how polluting the country was originally
the worst companies start off as the best
companies that have to buy more carbon credits put their prices up making consumers pay more!
in theory there is an economic incentive to reduce pollution

157

what type of climate does the tropical rainforest have?

equatorial

158

what are the temperatures like in the tropical rainforest?

high and constant - range of 2 degrees
the sun has a high angle in the sky
evening temps - rarely below 22 degrees
daytime temps - due to afternoon cloud and rain rarely rise above 32 degrees
places on the equator receives 12 hours of daylight every day

159

what is rainfall like in the tropical rainforest?

annual totals of places on the equator exceeds 2000mm per year
falls most afternoons in heavy convectional thunderstorms

160

where can tropical rainforest be found?

narrow zones roughly 5 degrees north and south of the equator
zones broken up by mountain ranges eg. the Andes in South America
main areas are the amazon, congo and extreme south east Asia

161

what is the climate of tropical rain forests?

hot, wet and humid throughout the year
either no seasons or there is short dry season

162

how is the tropical rainforest divided up?

emergent layer
canopy layer
shrubs and tree trunks
forest floor

163

describe the emergent layer

mahogany
windy
sunny
eagles
carnivores

164

describe the canopy layer

80% of life is here
direct access to sunlight
thick layer of vegetation
wide variety of animals including, monkeys, birds, insects and tree frogs
has epiphytes

165

describe the shrubs and tree trunk layer

little wind or light
bare trunks, branches, shrubs and tree saplings
snakes, insects and rodents

166

describe the forest floor layer

hot, humid, dark, no wind
few plants, fungi and plant remains
insects and termites
infertile land

167

how has farming caused deforestation in the Amazon?

slash and burn
subsistence farming - government provide some of the 25million landless people a 10km strip to farrm for their families
commercial cattle ranching - run by large transnational companies to sell beef to food chains

168

what is slash and burn?

the traditional method used by amerindians to clear land to live on

169

how has transport caused deforestation in the Amazon?

12,000km of road has been built across the rainforest
Transamazonian highway is the longest at 5300km - built to develop the region and transport timber
900km of railway from Carajas to the coast
small airships have been built

170

how has settlements caused deforestation in the Amazon?

the development in Amazonia has led to an increase in population 2-30million
large parts of the forest were cleared to make room for settlements such as Maraba and Carajas

171

what 4 things have caused deforestation in the Amazon?

Farming
Transport
Settlements
Resources

172

how have resources caused deforestation in the Amazon?

Timber - mainly hardwoods, obtained by logging companies that sell trees in developed countries
Minerals- provides the region with a vast natural resource iron ore, bauxite, manganese, diamonds, gold and silver (have to mined)
HEP - land has to be cleared to make the dam causing flooding

173

what are the impacts of deforestation on the indigenous people of the Amazon?

the Amerindians may have to move from their ancestral homes due
loss of animals and plants could be their food source
their traditional lifestyle, customs and religious beliefs may have to be changed

174

how would deforestation affect the food web?

there would be less producers
leading to less consumers as not enough food - could cause extinction

175

what impacts does deforestation have on the quality of the soil in the Amazon?

there are less trees to intercept
the rain floods the land taking all the soils nutrients with it (LEACHING)
fewer trees means less humus (decayed leaves) is created so less nutrients are added to the soil
the soil is poorer quality due to lack of nutrients

176

what impacts have deforestation had on the climate of the Amazon?

the canopy layer has been removed - no more interception and more water gets lost by surface runoff into rivers
lack of shade has increased temperatures on the forest floor

177

how have buttress roots adapted to the Amazon?

only need shallow roots to get nutrients
the roots stretch from the ground to 2 metres up to help support the tree

178

how has a jaguar adapted to the Amazon?

has strong claws to help climb the canopy layer
pattern fur for camouflage
excellent vision for hunting in the dark on the forest floor

179

how have lianas adapted to the Amazon?

wood vines that start at the ground level and climb up to the canopy for sunlight

180

how is the howler monkey adapted to the Amazon

strong arms to swing in the canopy trees
tail to help balance

181

how tall is the amazon rainforest?

60km

182

what are solutions to deforestation in the Amazon?

agroforestry
afforestation
ethical buying
education
carbon credit
national parks
ecotourism

183

what is agroforestry and how is it a solution to deforestation in the Amazon?

a variety of crops are planted so the soil is never bare and is not as easily eroded
some of the canopy layer is left to protect the soil - canopy trees intercept daily rainfall so the soil isn't leached and therefore doesn't become infertile
encourages poor farmers to use alternative methods of cultivation

184

what is afforestation and how is it a solution to deforestation in the Amazon?

established timer plantations replant trees that are cut down and stop illegal logging
all timber products from sustainable sources

185

what is education and how is it a solution to deforestation in the Amazon?

teaches people the importance of the rainforest

186

what is carbon credit and how is it a solution to deforestation in the Amazon?

rich industrialised countries pay Brazil to set aside rainforest
this is to offset the carbon emissions from he rich countries

187

what are national parks and how is it a solution to deforestation in the Amazon?

uses law to protect some areas of the forest from economic development eg. Jaù national park - located in the Amazonas state in Brazil
it is the largest forest reserve in South America

188

what is ecotourism and how is it a solution to deforestation in the Amazon?

stay in lodges made from trees which are replanted
eat local food
learn local traditions and educate yourself about the rainforest
lodges are powered by renewable energy sources eg. solar panels
facilities are usually basic - water is conserved

189

what is location of Manaus?

1300m north west of Brasilia, north Brazil, Brazil is on the east coast of South America
on confluence of river Negro and Amazon
8 by 8 miles of urban area

190

what is the population of Manaus?

million

191

what are the main industries in Manaus?

timber
oil refining
chemical processing
farming in surrounding areas
tourism

192

what are the impacts and management of timber?

deforestation has become popular to make room for the growing population
encourages illegal logging - offer a higher wage, made easy from lack of law enforcement
in 2001 trade of Mahogany was banned - "mahogany mafia" cut mahogany trees down and sell them for $50 each
lack of trees decreases interception causing leaching of the soil and causing the soil to become infertile
lack of trees also affects the ecosystem - decreases biodiversity
Greenpeace have blocked exported of illegally logged trees
employed "forest police" to stop mahogany mafia but the vast forest makes it difficuly

193

what are the impacts and management of farming?

swelling population - pressure to make enough food
deforestation - fertilisers are added to add nutrients back into the soil
chemicals from fertilisers easily flow into the rivers - polluting them
endangers animals such as the pink river dolphin
the university of Manaus and the rainforest alliance (an NGO) are encouraging farmers to stop agroforestry

194

what are the impacts and management of tourism?

many people come to experience the diverse wildlife of the Amazon by jungle trekking
many of the guide are only interested in the $$$ not preserving the wildlife
tours can be destructive to habitats
ecotourism - brings money to economy helps to raise the SOL for the locals

195

describe the process of acid rain

1. power stations, factories and cars cause pollution
2. chemicals such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide rise into the air
3. chemical changes produces acid (sulphuric and nitric acid)
4. acid polluted air is blown by the wind
5. water droplets in the air become polluted
6. acid rain falls to the ground
7. trees and vegetation become polluted and die
8. water and soil is polluted by acid

196

describe the distribution of acid rain in Europe

the highest concentration (4.3pH) concentrated around the scandinavian countries, coasts of Belgium and Holland, countries found on the Baltic Sea
lower concentrations around cities such as Luxembourg, Minsk and Vilnius

197

how is pollution (from industries) transported?

prevailing wind

198

why pollution levels high in Europe?

Western Europe has a high population and high energy use

199

what are the effects of acid rain on trees?

acidic water dissolves the nutrients and minerals
no branches, bark or leaves (defoliation)
aluminium is leached out of the soil - damages the tree because its toxic
inhibits the leaves from functioning
different species are more sensitivity
doesn't kill the tree - weakens and limits nutrients available to them

200

what are the effects of acid rain on lakes?

decreases biodiversity - different species are sensitive to different pH
aluminium increases the pH decreases - causes chronic stress which lowers fishes body weights and size, making them less competitive for survival

201

what are the effects of acid rain on water supplies?

leads to upset stomachs

202

what are the effects of acid rain on soil?

low pH rainwater increases leaching - valuable nutrients are lost leaving it infertile
a low pH soil can directly inhibit the growth of new vegetation

203

what are the effects of acid rain on buildings/statues?

botanic gardens - harder parts of the limestone stick out
turns green from bronze
traps in dirt and then flakes off leaving a hard crust
limestone is easily eroded
pock marks - little impressions in the rock
corners aren't sharp
eg. house of commons

204

explain how individuals can prevent acid rain

by walking/cycling
replace catalytic converter to reduce carbon emissions

205

explain how industry can prevent acid rain

using alternate energy sources: wind turbines
by "scrubbing" remaining pollutant from factory chimneys

206

explain how government can help to prevent acid rain

introduce an act to reduce carbon emissions
"liming" - adding lime to soil or lakes to neutralise the acid

207

lists 8 facts about out-of-town shopping centres

1. developed since the 1980s
2. out-of-town
3. close to the main roads because most people have a car now
4. close to suburban workforce
5. cheap land with loads of space
6. see shopping as a day long activity
7. lots of choice
8. offer stuff to do

208

what are the advantages of retail in the Newcastle CBD?

Good transport links - railway, A road, river
densely populated
tourist attraction - attracts people to visit
university - offers labour

209

what are the disadvantages of retail in the Newcastle CBD?

expensive
lots of competition
only able to buy small areas - cannot expand
overcrowded
noise and air pollution
lack of car parking
old buildings not designed for modern shops

210

what was Gateshead before the Metro centre was built?

marshland - greenfield site

211

what are the advantages of building the Metro Centre in Gateshead (a greenfield site)?

its an enterprise zone - area was in circle of decline so government offered the land at a low price, less planning restrictions so they could expand where they wanted, didn't have to pay business tax
has many transport links that goes direct to the shopping centre eg. the metro, railway and the A1
1.3 million people live within a 30 minute drive

212

lists some of the facilities the metro centre offers

1. free parking with special facilities for the disabled driver
2. over 300 shops and 40 eating places - variety
3. creates a pleasant shopping environment - trees, A/C and glass for natural light
4. ten screen cinema
5. creche for children
6. 150 room luxury hotel

213

what are the negative effects for the CBD as a result of the opening of the metro centre?

shops are likely to close as demand in the city centre decreases
jobs will be lost
likely to change the target market
go into a circle of decline
reduces standard of living