Flashcards in theme 3: control of the people 1917-1985 Deck (108)
in what year were all non-socialist newspapers banned?
how was the decree banning newspapers elevated and in what year?
in the 1920s any non-Bolshevik newspapers were also banned
what did lenin view newspapers as?
mouthpieces of the bourgeois
how where newspapers used for propaganda under stalin?
exaggerated achievements of industrialisation and collectivisation. reported production targets being exceeded
what were the two biggest newspapers in the USSR?
Pravda and izvestiya
how did the government ensure high readership?
papers were cheap and widely available. Pravda had a circulation of 10.7 million in 1983
what topics were prohibited in newspapers?
plane crashes and natural disasters
example of something that happened that wasn't reported
july 1972 big fire in Moscow, population had to wait a month before blue haze over city was explained
What were local newspapers permitted to do?
publish letters criticising minor bureaucrats and poor housing in the 1970s but never party leaders.
Who did magazines target?
specific groups of workers such as soldiers, farmers or teachers as well as young children and sports fans as newspapers generally did not comment on sport
how else did Bolsheviks get their message out to the people?
radio receivers were expensive so the Bolsheviks installed loudspeakers in public places and factories. group listening was used to make sure everyone got the right message
why were radios especially useful early on under lenin and stalin?
their message was sent to the 65% of the population who were illiterate. during the german invasion in 1941 stalin used it to commemorate the October revolution to assure the population all was not lost in the war
until what year was there only 1 radio station?
how did the government restrict access to foreign radio stations?
mass producing cheap radios with limited reception range. they also threatened to arrest anyone listening to foreign radio.
why did the government restrict access to foreign radio?
to restrict the level of public debate
how many TV's were there in 1950 compared to 1958?
10,000 sets 1950 3 million 1958
by what date did most of the rural population have televisions?
what was portrayed over television?
that soviet life was joyous and life under capitalism was full of crime, homelessness and violence
why was censorship and restriction of information not always successful?
the population got used to reading in between the lines
why were cult of personalities used?
to reinforce power of leaders and detach them from a collective leadership
key features of Lenin's cult of personality
-images, statues, films and newspapers all depicted lenin as a hero
-his body was embalmed and put on display
-Petrograd renamed Leningrad 1924
why did stalin create a cult of personality for lenin
to seem like his rightful heir
key features of stalin's cult of personality up until 1930
-links between lenin and stalin enforced, pictures doctored to remove political opponents
-1925 a town renamed Stalingrad
-slogan "Stalin is the Lenin of today" used
key features of stalin's cult of personality up until 1950
-images of stalin widely used giving the impression of his being godlike, all knowing and all powerful
-pictures of stalin with children enforced father figure image, images of him meeting average people
-portrayed as down to earth, simple, happy man
-family home turned into shrine, happy childhood painted despite only seeing his mother 3 times in 40 years
-statues, films and biographies made of stalin
key features of stalin's cult of personality up until death
-many towns named after stalin
-genuine admiration after second world war, said even people in gulags wept at his death
-cult of personality provided big image during health decline
-large celebrations for 70th birthday
how stalin's cult of personality changed
originally to make himself seem as the rightful heir, from 1930s used to solidify personal dictatorship and image, continued to rise to higher extremes from the 1950s
how did Khrushchev feel about cults
criticised stalin for having one in 1956 secret speech. yelled "You call this a cult" when accused of making his own cult of personality
key features of Khrushchev's cult of personality
-made him seem as a more important leader than Malenkov during shared power in 1953
-adulation through articles, books and posters with images of him meeting workers
-used radio, tv and cinema for self-publicity. increased newspaper publicity when son-in-law became editor
-used it to downplay policy failures
-reason for dismissal in 1964
key features of Brezhnev's cult of personality
-awarded himself over 100 medals, as a result became the butt of political jokes such as he must get his chest expanded to accommodate for all his medals
-substitute for real power when his health declined
Bolshevik attitude to religion
saw as threat to socialist ideology, dismissed religion as little more than superstition. called it the 'opium of the masses' and aimed to destroy the church and influence of religion
what was the 1918 decree on freedom of conscience?
separated the orthodox church from the state and it lost its status. deprived of its land, banned religious education outside of the home, publications outlawed
measures taken against churches
-churches destroyed or used for other purposes, closed all monasteries, head of orthodox church under house arrest 1918
-during civil war priests denied rations and the vote
-by 1923 due to red terror 28 bishops and over 1000 priests killed
-religious rituals attacked
by the end f 1930 4/5ths of village churches destroyed or inactive
what was the 1929 league of the militant godless
campaign to disprove existence of god, involved taking peasants in planes to show there was no heaven. propaganda against religion
changes to religious policy under stalin
more churches closed and priests labelled as kulaks and deported
when Germany invaded stalin took more liberal approach and reopened some churches and the patriarchate was reinstated to provide moral as the church supported the war effort
religious policy under khrushchev
very anti-religious. within 4 years 10,000 existing churches closed. surviving priests harassed. jews and Baptists also had severe restrictions on worship
religious policy under brezhnev
allowed church to act under defined limits to benefit foreign policy. council of religious affairs monitored services. churches expected to support soviet policies
church resistance under brezhnev
1976 Christian committee for the Defence of Believers Rights. step too far, leader sentenced to 5 years imprisonment
jews and Baptists who were more likely to be critical were treated with less tolerance
soviet actions towards islam
only in 1920s felt confident enough to attack Islamic institutions and rituals
-religious ownership of land prohibited
-mosques closed down
-sharia courts phased out
-campaign of unveiling of women
-Ramadan fasting condemned
results of religious policy
mid 1920s survey of peasants revealed 55% still active Christians despite measures
during 1980s it was found only 25% of the population believed in god, far fewer engaged in religious worship
when was yagoda the head of the secret police
1934-1936 shot 1939
main things yagoda did
-expanded gulags and used prisoners as labour for industrialisation, those deported to labour camps either starved or froze to death whilst working
-white sea canal hand dug by labourers from gulags, 10,000 died
why yagoda was dismissed
couldn't get confessions out of people and accused of not pursuing opposition with enough enthusiasm
When was the red terror and how many people were shot?
What did the Cheka become in 1922?
What did the GPU become in 1923
Under yagoda what was the new name of the secret police and when did the change happen
In what year did the NKVD become the KGB?
Who replaced yagoda?
What was yezhov’s nickname and how did he get it?
The bloody dwarf because during his time the NKVD indulged in the most excessive purged of all time. Yezhov also widely used torture to extract confessions from people, including zinoviev and lameness which yagoda failed to do
Example of the process of trial, arrest and imprisonment being sped up
In 1937 one court processed 231 people a day
How were the purges expanded?
-Quotas were made for how many people had to be arrested
-Opponents were considered to be any who wasn’t showing enough enthusiasm and commitment to the cause
-Members of the NKVD themselves were purged
-Surveillance of the public increased as did a network of ‘informers’
Why was yezhov dismisses and when
Stalin worried in 1938 that the purges were demoralising people with German invasion threat looming. Dismissed yezhov in 1938 and blamed him for the excess of terror
How did Beria ‘improve’ things over yezhov?
-surveillance continued but arrests were only made with sufficient evidence
-improved food rations for inmates in 1939 (although only to get the maximum work out of them)
Beria’s achievements (according to Stalin)
-oversaw the murder of Trotsky 1940
-gulag economic productivity increased 2.5 bill roubles 1927 to 4 bill roubles 1940
-in 1949 he purged 2,000 members of the Leningrad party branch to gain Stalin’s favour
How did the role of the secret police change during the Second World War?
-NKVD given control over deportations if national minorities who’s loyalty was under suspect
-1943 started to overrun areas previously captured by the Germans
-department SMERSH felt with suspected spies and murdered 4000+ polish officers
-any soviet troops who surrendered during initial invasion were held in camps, some were made to clear mine fields simply by walking through them
What was theMingrelian affair and when was it?
1951, a purge targeted at a minority which Beria belonged to in order to threaten him for trying to secure power during power struggle with Stalin’s declining health
What was the purge statin was planning before his death
The ‘Doctor’s Plot’ of which most of the accused were Jewish.
Evidence Stalin’s was responsible for terror
-personally signed death warrants
-gave NKVD quotas, if they were not met NKVD officers were added to the list
-aspects of terror reflected Stalin’s paranoid personality such as Kirov and the doctors plot
Impact on the removal of Beria on terror and when was he removed
1953 and the politburo restricted the independence of the secret police and bought it firmly under state control. Khrushchev dismantled the gulags and forced labour was never used again in sov economy
Who was the KGB headed by from 1967-82
Who were the dissidents that Andropov faced?
Who were nationalist dissidents and what did they want?
Groups of Ukrainians, Latvians, Lithuanians and Georgians who wanted greater status for their own languages and cultures, some wanted independence from the USSR
what did political dissidents want?
wanted to hold the government accountable for their own laws. groups were established to monitor the soviet unions application of the UN Declaration of Human Rights 1948 and the Helsinki Accords of 1975
who were the refuseniks and what did they want?
soviet jews who were denied their wish to emigrate to Israel.
what did the intellectuals want?
more freedom of expression
example of an intellectual dissident
Andrei Sakharov the nuclear scientist who wanted the ability to exchange ideas with foreign scientists which was prohibited. in frustration him and other leading scientists wrote to Brezhnev and were banned from further military research.
what actions were taken against dissidents?
-intellectuals threatened with expulsion from their professional organisations
-any material or apparatus that could be used to print and distribute material
-arrests were made
-dissidents were sent to psychiatric hospitals
what did the new criminal code of 1960 do
it abolished night-time interrogations and limited the powers of the KGB
why did the state use psychiatric ward to deal with dissidents?
it discredited the dissidents in the eyes of the public.
special 'hospitals' were run by the NKVD and the 'patients' were held until they were 'cured' i.e. changed their opinions, patients who refused were 'treated' with drugs and electric shocks
impact of dissidents
despite fears from the government dissidents had very little support and impact. they were not a coherent group of a movement
what did Andropov become in 1982?
General secretary of the communist party
in 1982 how did Andropov's monitoring of dissident groups increase?
surveillance was highly increased, conversations were recorded using tape and cassettes, listening devices and cameras were hidden in briefcases and bras.
what did Andropov do to reduce the number of dissidents
tried to visit factories and hear the views of the public but many felt intimidated and scared to complain to the former head of the KGB
what was created in 1917 for culture
Commissariat of Enlightenment
what was lenins attitude towards culture
lenin did not have much censorship because he enjoyed traditional Russian culture
what did Trotsky label those who created traditional Russian culture as?
what was prolekult/proletarian culture?
media that reflected the lives of ordinary people such as poems about machines of factories. peasants were encouraged to produce their own culture
what was used to promote prolekult
festivals were used with food rations as incentive for attendance
what were people creating prolekult culture called/
what was the problem with prolekul culture?
the government were concerned about the number of viewpoints expressed
what cause avant garde?
WW1 and the sweeping away of old Russia created the opportunity for experimentation
what was avant garde?
abstract and modern art with futuristic themes. propaganda was genuinely innovative.
emphasis on visual art due to low literacy levels
caused first appearance of jazz in Russia to mixed reviews
what was the problem with avant garde culture?
often too sophisticated for audiences to understand. did not represent the peoples values and beliefs.
some theatre pieces were cancelled after one showing as no one could understand them
what was the cultural revolution and what was the role of the Komsomol?
sweeping away of old bourgeois elements of society, included attack on traditional writers and artists previously tolerated under lenin
Komsomol members encouraged to boo at the playa of suspects
what was RAPP and what did they do?
Russian Association of Proletarian Writers who made attacks on Fellow Travellers and condemned individualist writers
what was the cult of the 'little man'? and example of such material
novels that glorified the achievements of industrial workers and collective peasants.
Kataevs 'Time Forward' novel 1932 recounted record breaking shift at Magnitogorsk
when was RAPP closed down and what was it replaced with?
1932. Union of Soviet Writers, bought cultural revolution to an end
what was Socialist Realism?
art presenting idealised images of socialist life to inspire the population and convince them of stalins statement that "life has become more joyous"
literature under socialist realism
focused away from cult of the little man to heroes of the party. population access to books was increased through low prices and tenfold growth in library acquisitions.
party controlled what was and was not published
artists wither let their work suffer, gave up writing, smuggled material abroad to be published or die in labour camps. some committee suicide
music under socialist realism
favoured military songs over jazz. banned saxophone in 1940s
architecture under socialist realism
'Stalinist baroque' / wedding cake architecture. Moscow university rebuilt in this style 1945
Moscow metro had chandeliers and elaborate murials
art under socialist realism
no experimentation. many statues of stalin started to appear
films under socialist realism + example
centred around achievements of revolution. Eisenstein used live ammunition in his retelling of the storing of the winter palace causing more deaths of extras then deaths of the real event
did people like socialist realism?
whilst it was out of touch with reality it inspired many party members and provided effective escapism for the population
what happened after ww2 with culture?
artists were allowed greater freedoms. anna Akhmatova and boris Pasternak were allowed to give readings of their unorthodox poems
what renewed oppression in culture after WW2
Zhdanovschina campaign expelled all western influences so all freedom disappeared again
what did Khrushchev allow?
previously banned work could be published such as Isaac babel who was shot during the purges
jazz made a reappearance which Khrushchev hated
what was nonconformity like under Khrushchev?
writings about bleak rural life, criticisms of the soviet state and society were made. which Khrushchev came increasingly less tolerant of in his last months of power
issues with youth culture under khrushchev
late 1950s youth culture adopted music taste and styles from the west. in 1955 western music was broadcasted into the ussr. audiences at concerts were small but music was distributed with tape recorders which made it hard to control
examples of Khrushchev personally attacking culture
he hated abstract art and criticised one at exhibition but no action was taken
without reading a book he banned it, however it was smuggled into Italy and published and won a literature award which was embarrassing for khrushchev
how did Brezhnev change limits on what artists were allowed to do
increased limits on what was acceptable, many artists preferred the explicit boundaries but continued to push them
what did official culture focus on under brezhnev
focused on propaganda and achievements of socialist. encouraged Russian nationalism. majority of population preferred this even if it was undemanding for artists
In the 1970s how did culture chane
culture became more conservative and artists could get in more trouble for sexual themes over political themes
how did Brezhnev try to limit spread of western influence in popular youth culture
exercised control over radio and record companies. this was undermined with development of cassette recorders which were widely available by the early 1980s
Trial of Joeph Brodsky
1964. poems were read to secret gatherings. sentenced 5 years hard labour in prison for 'parasitism' ad not producing anything of material value for the soviet state. showed despite khrushchevs cultural thaw, Brezhnev had limits
trials of Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuki Daniel
1966. arrested and accused of non-Soviet propaganda for short novels depicting harsh reality of soviet life under pseudonyms. resulted in demonstration of 200 + students. sinyavsky for 7 years, daniels for 5
what happened to an art gallery director displaying dissident art?
he got 8 years in prison