Flashcards in theme 3: the Cultural Revolution and its aftermath 1966-76 Deck (51):
what were the 4 reasons for launching the cultural revolution
divisions within CCP of ideologues and pragmatists
division within CCP of supporters and opponents of mao
quest for permanent revolution
attacks on bureaucracy
what did mao think of pragmatists
uncomfortable with their revisionist methods even though they ended famine caused by GLF because he did not want to admit his failures
what happened at the January 1962 conference and how many attended
7,000 cadres attended. Mao wanted to gain support against drifting away from socialist ideals but resulted in him withdrawing from public life
example of liu controlling maos ideas
mao launched a socialist education movement in 1963 to root out corruption in rural cadres. liu bought it under centralised control and even though it resulted in thousands executed mao was unhappy with lack of peasant involvement
why did mao want permanent revolution
wanted mass mobilisation to prevent revisionism
Khrushchev de-Stalinisation scared him
mao wanted the younger generation to have revolutionary experience so they would fully commit to cause
why did mao want to attack bureaucracy?
scared a new class of bureaucrats would emerge and was convinced 'capitalist roaders' were hijacking the party
who were the opponents of mao
liu shaoqi, deng Xiaoping, chen yun, bo yibo
who were the supporters of mao
lin biao, jiang qing ("madame mao"), kang shek, chen boda
when did mao accuse liu of taking the capitalist road?
1964 in a party conference
when was the CCRG set up and what was it
may 1966, in charge of cultural revolution. had lin biao and gang of four in it. mao could deflect any blame onto them if necessary
what was the wall poster campaign?
began in Beijing university and spread to campuses nationwide. liu attempted to quell unrest using work teams but this failed.
they were huge posters normally denouncing someone
maos cult of personality
involved little red book, compilation of maos thoughts made by lin biao that became a social necessity to carry in 1966
meant red guard could distinguish between mao and the repression of the communist party.
began intense hero-worship of mao
when and what was "bombard the headquarters"
august 1966. mao called on students to rebel and challenge those in positions of power. went against deep rooted ancestry respect in Chinese culture
Why did so many join the red army?
Their prospects were bad anyway and this way they were given a purpose
When was the first mass rally
18th August 1966 in Tiananmen Square
How many mass rallies were there?
How many attended the first mass rally
1 million red guard
How did the government improve attendance to rallies during the cultural revolution
Closed schools and universities
Gave them free rail passes
What were the four olds?
Old culture, customs, habits and ideas
Who launched the attack on the four olds?
What 2 things did Zhou enlai prevent happening in culture destroying and the red guards rampage?
-changing traffic lights so that red meant go instead of stop
-prevented the destruction of the forbidden city
What event showed that the four olds had not been completely stamped out
Thousands attended the festival of the dead ceremony in 1976 following Zhou enlais death
In the cultural revolution what did the red guard do
-ransacked houses for bourgeois possessions. Owners could sometimes dodge struggle sessions but were often beaten
-attacked those in positions of power. Anyone accused by red guard were subject to struggle sessions, torture and were forced to confess to their crimes
What were correction stations?
Set up on street corners where those with western haircuts had their heads shaved
Example of how many people killed in cultural revolution
One crematorium disposed of 2,000 bodies in a 2 week period in 1966
What was the “January storm”
1967, red guard seized power from the CCP itself and tried to set up its own commune. Step too far and map shit it down with the PLA
What did the January storm cause
PLA cracked down on radicals but February map denounced the crackdown and encourages radicals to greater violence
Why did mao finally use the PLA to stop the red guard?
Because it could have caused a full scale civil war and China was vulnerable to foreign invasion
What happened in cultural destruction
7,000 places of historical and cultural importance were destroyed in Beijing
100,000 homes were broken into searching for old artefacts
Confucius’ home in Qufu was destroyed and vandalised
When were Deng and Liu dismisses frkm their positions
October 1966 following red guard demonstration aimed at them
What happened to Liu
Liu and his wife were dragged and beaten. Liu had brutal struggle sessions and was left to die in a prison where he was deprived of necessary medical attention
What happened to Deng
Subject to public humiliation but sent to do corrective labour in tractor factory in jiangxi province
When was Deng first bought back?
What happened to Lin Biao?
Vast power as head of PLA and mao was scared. Attacked his allies after Jiang Qing feel out with lin over the extent of her interference. Apparently planning assassination, failed and fled on a plane that crashed
What did Jiang Qing do in 1973
Launched campaign discrediting lin. Those close to him were purged
Bombard the headquarters also caused length purge of all levels of party membership. How many politburo members held onto their posts in 1966
How much of the central committee was purged?
How much of the politburo and central committee were made up by PLA officers after the cultural revolution
45% new central committee
What did “attack on capitalist roaders” do and impact
Staff in every factory, shop and office and school were subject to scrutiny. Caused serious fall in industry production
Examples of foreigners being targeted
British embassy broken into and red guard attacked staff
-30 countries experienced violent incidents involving Chinese militant
When was the “cleansing of the class ranks” campaign
What was the rustication campaign?
“Up to the mountains and down to the villages” involved compulsory movement of 5 million young people to countryside 1968-70 for them to learn the hardships of labour. Between 1968-1978 15 million young people were relocated (lost generation)
Why did young people hate rustication campaign
Primitive conditions, hostile peasants, no food, hard labour. Those with party connections returned to the cities whereas others remained permanently exiles which caused them to become disillusioned with the party.
What did Zhou Enlai advocate
Four modernisations and greater trade links with west. Caused Nixon visit
When was the Nixon visit?
1972 in Beijing
Who were the Gang of Four?
In CCRG. Radicals who wanted continuation of CR
What did the Gang of Four launch?
Anti- Confucius campaign in 1973 denouncing Lin Biao. People could see Jiangs political motives and it was unpopular
What did Zhou Enlais death cause?
Mass mourning that angered the Gang of Four. Gang of Four tried to remove wreaths causing riots and violence. They blamed Deng and he was removed again in 1976
When did mao die?
Who was maos chosen successor (at time of death)