Flashcards in Theme 6: Revolutionary Nationalism & Easter Rising Deck (36):
When did the Irish cultural revival begin to take place?
Towards the end of the 19th century
What sort of things did the Cultural revival emphasise?
Irish Language and Irish Sports
What were the reasons for the loss of Irish Culture?
Great Famine and English athletic association taking over in Ireland
What was the Gaelic Athletics Association?
A group founded by Michael Cusack in 1884 that tried to set up a new athletics organisation that would encourage the practice of Irish games
How did the Irish cultural organisations contribute to Irish nationalism?
The things they talked about lead many to believe that Ireland should be separate from Britain as much as possible to preserve their proud Irish culture
When and what was the Gaelic League and who founded it?
In 1893 Eoin MacNeil founded this organisation that encouraged the use of the Irish language after it had been lost following many leaving during the famine
How many spoke Irish only in Ireland in 1891?
What were two other organisations that encouraged the use of the Irish language?
Society for the Preservation of Irish Language
When was the United Irishmen newspaper founded and by who? What did it talk about?
In 1899 Arthur Griffith founded the newspaper that published information and views regarding Irish independence and separatism
Who and when was Sinn Fein founded?
Arthur Griffith in 1905
What did Sinn Fein believe in regards to the status of Ireland?
That Ireland should be completely separate from Britain apart from the monarchy
How popular was Sinn Fein in the early years of the 20th century and why?
Not popular due to the prominence and reputation of the IPP that seemed to be getting closer to achieving Home Rule
When was the Sinn Fein newspaper banned and why?
Banned in 1913 due to explicit and bold political opinion
Who was Martin Murphy?
A Conservative, but not Conservative Party member, Constitutional Irish Nationalist who was an IPP MP and an employer in Dublin
What is the ITGWU and who lead them?
Irish Transport and General Workers Union lead by James Larkin and James Connonly
In terms of assessing the creation of the Easter Rising what was the significance of the Dublin Lock out?
> It allied Conollly, Plunkett and Pearse who were to be instrumental in setting up the rising
> The Irish citizen army was created in part by James Connolly that were to assist with the Easter Rising
What happened in the Dublin Lock Out?
Martin Murphy and other Dublin employers locked out their employees because they were part of the ITGWU. Murphy being an employer did not like the union because naturally unions and employers don't get on with each other.
What did the ITGWU leadership do in response to the lock out?
Called for a general strike across Dublin against other employers who were associated with Murphy.
Which side of Irish nationalism supported the employers and what side supported the employees? And why?
- Constitutional Nationalists (IPP) supported employers because Murphy was a member of their party
- Revolutionary nationalists supported employees because they could relate to their low economic status
What did Larkin do following the eventual defeat of the strike?
He left for America
What happened to Connoly following Larkin's departure to America?
He became leader of the ITGWU and the Irish citizen army that had formed during the dispute to support employees
What had Larkin and Connoly done in the strike that impressed Pearse?
They united socialism and nationalism and shown great courage
In terms of the different strands of Irish nationalism, what were the results of the Dublin Lock out?
1) Constitutional and Revolutionary drifted apart from eachother.
2) Connoly impressed Pearse and built a relationship eventually leading to their joint creation of the Easter Rising
How many Irish Volunteers joined the British fight in ww1 and what did they rename themselves?
How many Irish volunteers refused to fight in WW1?
How were the Irish Volunteers used by the IRB to set up the Easter Rising
The Irish volunteers were ignored during the war due to the Irish administrations focus being upon enrolment of soldiers. The IRB used this as an opportunity to rally the Irish volunteers so that they could make the most of an opportunity where England was at war so to create the eventual rising
What events lead to the eventual Easter Rising and how?
1) Dublin Lock Out (Created Irish Citizen Army, Pearse and Connoly became friends, divided constitutional and revolutionary nationalism)
2) In 1915 the IRB absorbed the Gaelic Union and Irish Volunteers. (With the Irish Volunteers came Pearse)
3) In 1915 the Irish Citizen Army and James Connoly joined IRB
When was the Easter Rising?
End of April 1916
Why was the rising a failure?
The weapons they had hoped to import a few days before were intercepted, poor organisation of revolts outside of Dublin resulted in them not materialising, British army too strong
What was the initial public reaction to the Easter Rising?
Outrage and perceived the leaders and those who took part as selfish as they country was at war. The timing was seen as inappropriate considering many Irish were fighting in the war
What events lead to public sympathy towards the Easter Rising?
Imprisoning of 1800 involved in the Easter Rising without trial and execution of the leaders
Who mistakably received the sympathy and support from the public after the Easter rising imprisonments and executions and why?
Sinn Fein because they were seen as the organisation that would carry this out and so the public thought they did it.
How many that were involved in the Easter Rising were imprisoned without trial?
What was the Irish Citizen army and when was it formed?
A socialist/revolutionary nationalist paramilitary force that emerged during the Dublin Lock Out to serve the employees
What was the name of the British general that came down hard upon the Easter Rising and what did he do?
Arrested 1800 people and shot Connolly and Pearse