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Flashcards in Themes/Terminology Deck (17)
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Nazi Party

- founded in 1920
- Hitler became leader in 1921
- revival of nativisim, national pride
- "social welfare" for German workers
- extreme xenophobia, grounded in pseudo-scientific racial theories
- initially anti-capitalist, later created alliances with big business and industry
- always explicitly anti-Communist/anti-Marxist, anti-Liberalism and anti-Democracy
- promoted national rebirth and condemned "Weimar Republic"


Fascism (general)

- revolutionary form of nationalism, one which sets out to be a political, social and ethical revolution welding the people into a dynamic national community under new elites infused with new heroic values
- the core myth that inspires this project is that only a populist, trans-class movement of purifying, cathartic national rebirth can stem the tide of decadence


elements of german fascism

- rebirth or nation (out of decline and decadence)
- heroic leader of new national community (salvation)
- scapegoats (blamed for decline) and must be systematically excluded
- populist nationalism (unites an alienated part of the population against both elites and scapegoats through racism and nativism)
- celebrates a return to order, social hierarchy, miliatarism, discipline, family, virility/patriarchy and purity
- socially conservative but technologically modern
- becomes totalitarian through terror, singularity, infallibility, and elimination of all checks and balances


Aryans (according to Hitler)

- founders of culture and drivers of progress
- at the top of a hierarchy of races
- scientific racism
- herder: race and national theory, the first conception of ethnic nationalism
- fear of miscegenation (mixing of races/cultures)
- celebration of imperial/colonial history
- subjugating 'lower' or 'aboriginal' races but not mixing with them


Context in which Hitler comes to power

- economic --> hyper-inflation during 1921-24, stock market crash in 1929, increasing unemployment
- aftermath of WWI (2.5M dead; 4M wounded)
- political violence --> massive fragmentation on the right and the left; dozens of political parties vying for power and forced to make coalitions; German Democratic party steadily loses power in 1920s/early 30s
- social and cultural --> liberalism, internationalism; experimental arts flourished (dada, surrealism, cabaret, Bauhaus, and expressionist cinema)



- decline
- decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith or skill at governing
- decline in art, literature, science, technology, and work ethics
- self-indulgent behavior
- the decadent movement in late nineteenth century, symbolism and/or aestheticism
- 1919-1933 Weimar Republic
- the nazis decried Berlin as a haven of vice


Hitler & Elections

- 1924, Nazi party receives only 3% of vote
- 1932, Nazi party wins 37% of vote in July and then 33% in Nov, forced to form coalition with German National People's party)
- unemployment rises to 6 million by Jan 1933
- Hitler appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg on January 30, 1933 --> Hiddenburg dies in 1934


Nuremberg Laws

- establish citizenship based on "German blood" and certification granted by Reich
- prohibits marriage between Germans and Jews


examples of Nuremberg Laws

- forbids Jews to the bar (law admissions)
- revokes citizenship of naturalized Jews and "undesirables"
-expels Jewish officers from the army
- expels Jews from being veterinarians
- Jewish children no longer allowed in public schools


logic of fascism

- ideology; political/social worldview is a response to crisis
- racism/antisemitism as explanatory framework
- squelching dissent, freedom & democratic rights
- elimination of checks and balances
- suspension of rights/citizenship
- propaganda; mass rallies & mass spectacles; dismantling of independent media
- invents its own history, factuality and truth
- reports on & enforces its truth through terror



- term introduced in the 1950s in the US
- sacrifice, burnt offering, slaughter



- hebrew term
- used for "destruction"
- used in 1940 in Poland



- "killing of race"
- coined in 1944 by Raphael Lemkin
- used in 1946 UN Resolutions condemning genocide


crimes against humanity

- used in 1945 Nuremberg trials



- annihilation
- "to make into nothing"


Endlosung der Judenfrage

- final solution to the Jewish question
- common euphemism, especially at Wannsee conference