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Flashcards in Theories Of Counseling & Relationship Deck (68):
1

A counselor is running a psycho-educational group in an addiction treatment center. Psycho-educational groups can also be called guidance groups on your exam. The leader keeps using the term "stinking-thinking." She is obviously operating out of:
a) a Rogerian model also known as the non-directive, client-centered, person-centered counseling or self-theory.
b) a gestalt perspective created by Fritz Perls, classified as an experiential approach.
c) CBT which stands for cognitive behavioral therapy.
d) a strict narrative therapy paradigm classified as a postmodern theory.

c) CBT which stands for cognitive behavioral therapy.

2

You suspect a client is contemplating suicide. In situations such as this you should ask the client if he is thinking of killing himself. If the client says yes you should inquire about the client's suicide plan. This is part of your lethality assessment. You decide to use a no-suicide contract with this client. Based on recent research:
a) you should use a safety plan instead because it is even more effective.
b) the no-suicide plan would be the best course of action.
c) a no-suicide contract and a safety plan are equally effective.
d) you should never use a no-suicide contract or a safety plan.

a) you should use a safety plan instead because it is even more effective.

3

A client comes to the session intoxicated. She is very docile. You should:
a) confront her with her intoxication and then deal with her internal verbalizations.
b) relax her using the Jacobson Method.
c) make plans to get her home safely such as taking a taxi home or having a friend drive her home.
d) do therapy as usual. A client often makes the best progress when she is intoxicated.

c) make plans to get her home safely such as taking a taxi home or having a friend drive her home.

4

The "splitting in the patient's soup" technique is used in:
a) Alfred Adler's individual psychology, a theory that emphasizes birth order and the inferiority complex.
b) Psychiatrist William Glasser's reality therapy with choice theory.
c) Wolpe's systematic desensitization, an excellent paradigm for dealing with phobic behavior.
d) There is no technique known as "spit in the soup." That's ridiculous.

a) Alfred Adler's individual psychology, a theory that emphasizes birth order and the inferiority complex.

5

A client comes to your alcohol treatment center. His blood alcohol concentration/content (BAC) is .91:
a) there is no worry as this is in the normal range.
b) this is very low; he probably hasn't even had a drink.
c) this is a bit over normal. Perhaps he used an alcohol-based mouth wash before the session.
d) he is legally drunk.

d) he is legally drunk.

6

You refer an alcoholic client of yours to an addiction treatment agency. Because of state funding regulations the center must provide medical assisted treatment (MAT) in addition to counseling, psycho-educational and 12-step approaches. The center will most likely prescribe ___________ for your client:
a) vivitrol.
b) suboxone.
c) lithium carbonate.
d) only an SSRI medication.

a) vivitrol.

7

A client is taking an injectable form of Naltexone since he received a DUI. He claims he is extremely depressed and suicidal since he began this new form of treatment. You know that:
a) this is purely psychological since the medicine cannot cause this.
b) most clients use this as a bogus excuse since this medicine reduces their craving for alcohol and most clients who received DUI's don't want to give up drinking.
c) this is serious and must be investigated because Vivitrol can cause serious side effects including depression and suicidal feelings.
d) alcoholics lie (it is part of their disease).

c) this is serious and must be investigated because Vivitrol can cause serious side effects including depression and suicidal feelings.

8

A client leaves your recovery center AMA. He goes drinking on the way home. He is subsequently stopped by a law enforcement officer who finds that his BAC is .09. Nevertheless, since his driving was not impaired or impacted in any way:
a) the police officer would not give your client a DUI.
b) the police officer would still give your client a DUI.
c) it is the officer's judgement call whether to give your client a DUI or not.
d) the police officer might give him a DUI, but your client could fight the change in court and might win since his BAC level - although it was very high - was not truly impacting his driving.

b) the police officer would still give your client a DUI.

9

A client who is heroin addict has been in a medical assisted recovery program for a while now. The psychiatrist at the center will most likely prescribe __________ for your client:
a) Vivitrol with counseling and support groups.
b) Suboxone Film with counseling and support groups.
c) only Suboxone sublingual tablets, psychiatrist don't recommend counseling.
d) only an SNRI medication.

b) Suboxone Film with counseling and support groups.

10

Your client is clinically depressed. According to recent research using brain scans:
a) the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the thalamus all influence mood.
b) only the hippocampus is involved.
c) only the thalamus is involved.
d) only the amygdala.

a) the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the thalamus all influence mood.

11

Mainstream psychiatry has not accepted brain scans as a legitimate diagnostic tool yet. All of the following are brain scans except:
a) SPECT
b) PET
c) CT
d) SNRI

d) SNRI

12

The argument/arguments against using brain scans (also called brain imagining or neuro-imaging) would be:
a) insurance doesn't pay for them.
b) even though the radiation levels are low, some medical experts feel the radiation could be harmful.
c) the cost can be very expensive if you pay for them out of pocket; several thousand dollars in some cases.
d) all of the above.

d) all of the above.

13

Which theorist has postulated that neuroplasticity occurs in counseling?
a) Michael White
b) Carl R. Rogers.
c) Carl Whitaker.
d) Allen Ivey.

d) Allen Ivey.

14

Syncretism can best be defined by:
a) an unsystematic process of putting together various psychotherapy modaliites to treat a client.
b) the first step in learning to be eclectic.
c) choices a and b.
d) none of the above.

c) choices a and b.

15

The limbic system can best be defined as:
a) a technique in narrative therapy.
b) a popular technique in career construction theory created by Mark Savickas.
c) a physiological entity which is involved in emotions and drives (e.g. sex).
d) the seat of Freud's preconscious mind.

c) a physiological entity which is involved in emotions and drives (e.g. sex).

16

Motivational interviewing (MI) is:
a) based on gestalt because you need a confrontation style when working with addicts and this approach is popular in addiction recovery centers.
b) based on William Glasser's reality therapy with choice theory.
c) Alfred Adler's individual psychology, an approach which emphasizes birth order and the inferiority complex.
d) Carl Ransom Rogers's person-centered therapy; it puts a premium on empathy.

d) Carl Ransom Rogers's person-centered therapy; it puts a premium on empathy.

17

Eric Berne's transactional analysis (TA) posits three ego states; the Child, the Adult, and the Parent. These roughly correspond to Freud's structural theory that includes:
a) oral, anal, phallic.
b) unconscious, preconscious, and conscious.
c) a and b.
d) id, ego, and superego.

d) id, ego, and superego.

18

Freud's theory speaks of Eros and Thanatos. A client who threatens a self-destructive act is being ruled primarily by:
a) eros.
b) eros and the id.
c) thanatos.
d) both eros an thanatos.

c) thanatos.

19

Most scholars would assert that Freud's 1900 work entitled The Interpretation of Dreams was his most influential work. Dream have:
a) manifest and latent content.
b) preconscious and unconscious factors.
c) id and ego.
d) superego and id.

a) manifest and latent content.

20

Talking about difficulties in order to purge emotions and feelings is a curative process known as:
a) catharsis and/or abreaction.
b) resistance.
c) accurate empathy.
d) reflection of emotional content.

a) catharsis and/or abreaction.

21

In a counseling session, a counselor asked a patient to recall what transpired three months ago to trigger her depression. There was silence for about two and one-half minutes. the client then began to remember. This exchange most likely illustrates the function of the:
a) preconscious mind.
b) ego ideal.
c) conscious mind.
d) unconscious mind.

a) preconscious mind.

22

A student tells a college counselor that he is not upset by a grade of "F" in physical education that marred his fourth year perfect 4.0 average, inasmuch as "straight-A students are eggheads." This demonstrates:
a) introjection.
b) reaction formation.
c) sour grapes rationalization.
d) sweet lemon rationalization.

d) sweet lemon rationalization.

23

Mark is obsessed with stamping out pornography. He is unconsciously involved in this cause so that he can view the material. This is:
a) reaction formation.
b) introjection.
c) projection.
d) rationalization.

a) reaction formation.

24

The client's tendency to inhibit or fight against the therapeutic process is known as;
a) resistance.
b) sublimation.
c) projections.
d) individuation.

a) resistance.

25

C.G. Jung, the founder of analytic psychology, said men operate on logic or the ______________ principle, while women are intuitive, operating on the ________ principle:
a) eros; thanatos.
b) logos; eros.
c) reality; pleasure.
d) transference; countertransference.

b) logos; eros.

26

Jung used drawings balanced around a center point to analyze himself, his clients, and dreams. He called them:
a) mandalas.
b) projective drawings.
c) unconscious automatic writing.
d) eidetic imagery.

a) mandalas.

27

The personality types of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) are associated with the work of:
a) psychoanalysis.
b) Freud.
c) Adler.
d) Jung.

d) Jung.

28

Adler was one of the first therapist who relied on paradox. Using this strategy, a client (who was a student in a counselor preparation program) who was afraid to give a presentation in front of his counseling class for fear he might shake and embarrass himself would be instructed to:
a) exaggerate the behavior and really do a thorough job shaking in front of the class.
b) practice relaxation techniques for 10 to 20 minutes before the speech.
c) practice rational self-talk.
d) practice rational thinking.

a) exaggerate the behavior and really do a thorough job shaking in front of the class.

29

Jung spoke of a collective unconscious common to all men and women. The material that makes up the collective unconscious, which is passed from generation to generation, is known as:
a) a hierarchy of needs
b) instinctual.
c) paradox.
d) archetypes.

d) archetypes.

30

During a professional staff meeting, a counselor says he is worried that if techniques are implemented to stop a 6-year old boy from sucking his thumb, then he will begin biting his nails or stuttering. The counselor:
a) is using the logic set forth in gestalt therapy.
b) is using Donald Meichenbaum's cognitive behavior modification.
c) is most likely a behaviorist concerned with symptom substitution.
d) is most likely an analytically trained counselor concerned with symptom substitution.

d) is most likely an analytically trained counselor concerned with symptom substitution.

31

A counselor who is obsessed with the fact that a client missed his or her session is the victim of:
a) cognitive dissonance
b) transference.
c) counter-transference.
d) positive transference.

c) counter-transference.

32

B. F. Skinner's reinforcement theory elaborated on:
a) Edward Throndike's law of effect.
b) Adler's concept of lifestyle.
c) Arnold Lazarus' concept of the BASIC ID used the multi-modal therapeutic approach that is eclectic and holistic.
d) symptoms substitution.

a) Edward Throndike's law of effect.

33

All reinforcers:
a) are plastic tokens.
b) tend to increase the probability that a behavior will occur.
c) are secondary.
d) do not raise behavior since negative reinforcement lowers behavior.

b) tend to increase the probability that a behavior will occur.

34

Punishment:
a) is the same as negative reinforcement.
b) is much more effective than reinforcement.
c) decrease the probability that a behavior will occur.
d) is used extensively in reality therapy.

c) decrease the probability that a behavior will occur.

35

In Pavlov's famous experiment using dogs, the bell was the _________. and the meat was the ________:
a) CS; UCS.
b) UCS; CS.
c) CR; UCS.
d) UCS; CR.

a) CS; UCS.

36

Several graduate students in counseling trained a poodle to salivate using Pavlov's classical conditioning paradigm. One day the department chairman was driving across and honked his horn. Much to the chagrin of the students, the poodle elicited a salivation response. What had happened?
a) experimental neurosis had obviously set in.
b) extinction.
c) stimulus generalization or what Pavlov termed irradiation.
d) stimulus discrimination.

c) stimulus generalization or what Pavlov termed irradiation.

37

In one experiment, a dog was conditioned to salivate to a bell paired with a fast-food cheeseburger. The researcher then kept ringing the bell without giving the dog the cheeseburger. This is known as:
a) instrumental learning via shaping.
b) positive reinforcement.
c) extinction, and the salivation will disappear.
d) negative reinforcement.

c) extinction, and the salivation will disappear.

38

John B. Watson's name is associated with:
a) Little Hans.
b) Anna O.
c) Little Albert.
d) b and c.

c) Little Albert.

39

The first studies, which demonstrated that animals could indeed be conditioned to control autonomic processes, were conducted by:
a) E. Thorndike.
b) Joseph Wolpe.
c) Neal Miller.
d) Ivan Pavlov.

c) Neal Miller.

40

When a counselor refers to a counseling paradigm, she really means:
a) she is nondirective.
b) she is very directive.
c) a treatment model.
d) she is not a depth psychologist.

c) a treatment model.

41

A client who is having panic attacks is told to practice relaxing his jaw muscle for three minutes per day. The counselor here is using:
a) concreteness.
b) a directive.
c) interpretation.
d) parroting.

b) a directive.

42

____________ is a biofeedback device:
a) a bathroom scale.
b) a DVD player.
c) a digital clock.
d) an anyalst's couch.

a) a bathroom scale.

43

Empathy is:
a) the ability to understand the client's world and to communicate this to the client.
b) behavioristic.
c) a and b.
d) the same as sympathy.

a) the ability to understand the client's world and to communicate this to the client.

44

A counselor discovered that a client became nervous and often experienced panic attacks when she wold tense her frontalis muscle over her eyes. The counselor wanted direct muscle feedback and thus would rely on:
a) the Jacobson relaxation method.
b) GSR feedback.
c) EMG feedback.
d) a simple yet effective mood ring.

c) EMG feedback.

45

According to the Premack principle, an efficient reinforcer is what the client himself or herself likes to do. Thus, in this procedure:
a) a lower-probability behavior is reinforced by a higher-probability behavior.
b) a higher-probability behavior is reinforced by a lower-probability behavior.
c) a and b are paradoxically both effective.
d) none of the above.

a) a lower-probability behavior is reinforced by a higher-probability behavior.

46

A counselor who wanted to teach a client to produce alpha waves for relaxation would utilize:
a) EMG feedback.
b) GSR feedback.
c) EEG feedback.
d) EKG feedback.

c) EEG feedback.

47

The most difficult intermittent schedule to extinguish is the:
a) fixed ratio, for example giving a child an M&M for each five math problems she completes.
b) fixed interval, which describes the way most agency counselors are paid (e.g. one time per month, although the amount of work may vary from month to month).
c) variable interval.
d) variable ratio.

d) variable ratio.

48

Joseph Wolpe created systematic desensitization, a form of reciprocal inhibition based on counter-conditioning. His strategy has been used in individual and group settings. When using his technique, the acronym SUDS stands for:
a) standard units of dysfunction.
b) a given hierarchy of dysfunction.
c) subjective units of distress scale.
d) standard units dysfunction scale.

c) subjective units of distress scale.

49

An alcoholic is given Antabuse, which is a drug that causes nausea when paired with alcohol. This technique is called:
a) systematic desensitization.
b) biofeedback.
c) back-up reinforcement.
d) aversive conditioning.

d) aversive conditioning.

50

One distinction between flooding (also known as "deliberate exposure with response prevention" in recent literature) and implosive therapy is that:
a) implosive therapy is always conducted in the imagination.
b) flooding is always conducted in the imagination.
c) flooding is always safer.
d) implosive therapy is physically more dangerous.

a) implosive therapy is always conducted in the imagination.

51

Viktor Frankl is the Father of logo-therapy, which is based on existentialism. Logo therapy means:
a) healing through meaning.
b) healing through the unconscious.
c) logic cures.
d) all of the above.

a) healing through meaning.

52

All of these philosophers are existentialist except:
a) Plato and Epictetus.
b) Sarte, Buber, Binswanger, and Boss.
c) Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Tillich.
d) Heideggar, Dostoevsky, and Jaspers.

a) Plato and Epictetus.

53

Existential counselors emphasize the client's:
a) free choice, decision, and will.
b) transference.
c) slips of tongue.
d) latent dream symbolism.

a) free choice, decision, and will.

54

When a counselor reviews what has transpired in past counseling sessions he or she is using:
a) paraphrasing.
b) reflection.
c) summarization.
d) confrontation.

c) summarization.

55

Glasser's position on mental illness is that:
a) it is best explained by DSM guidelines.
b) diagnostic labels gives clients permission to act sick or irresponsible.
c) it is best explained by ICD categories.
d) it is the result of a deep internal conflict.

b) diagnostic labels gives clients permission to act sick or irresponsible.

56

The relationship that the therapist has with the client in reality therapy is:
a) detached but very empathic.
b) like that of a warm caring mother.
c) like that of a friend who asks what is wrong.
d) friendly; nevertheless punishment is used when it is appropriate.

c) like that of a friend who asks what is wrong.

57

The philosopher most closely related to REBT would be;
a) Buber.
b) Epictetus, a stoic philosopher who suggested we feel the way we think.
c) Locke.
d) Jaspers.

b) Epictetus, a stoic philosopher who suggested we feel the way we think.

58

REBT suggests the ABC theory of personality, in which A is the ______, B is the _______, and C is the ________:
a) affect; belief; control.
b) activating event; belief system; emotional consequence.
c) affect; behavior; control.
d) authenticity; belief; emotional consequence.

b) activating event; belief system; emotional consequence.

59

Bibliotherapy is a form of :
a) psychodynamic intervention.
b) homework.
c) displacement.
d) musturbation.

b) homework.

60

The cognitive therapist most closely associated with the concept of "stress inculation" is:
a) Albert Ellis.
b) Donald Meichenbaum.
c) Maxie C. Mautsby, Jr.
d) Aaron T. Beck.

b) Donald Meichenbaum.

61

The Child ego state is like the little kid within. The child may manifest itself as:
a) the Natural Child.
b) the Adapted Child.
c) the Little Professor.
d) all of the above.

d) all of the above.

62

A game is composed of transactions which end in a bad feeling for at least one player. Games are said to prevent true intimacy. Which other statement is true of games?
a) in a first-degree game someone gets seriously hurt.
b) in a first-degree game the harm is minimal, but the level of harm is quite serious in a third-degree game.
c) for a game to occur, three people must be involved.
d) games always involved parallel vectors of communication.

b) in a first-degree game the harm is minimal, but the level of harm is quite serious in a third-degree game.

63

A client who is undergoing gestalt therapy states, "It is difficult to get a job in New York City," would be asked by the counselor to:
a) go to the O*NET website - http://www.online.onetcenter.org. This is the replacement for the DOT and is now the nation's primary source of occupational information.
b) change the verbalization to an "I" statement.
c) read the OOH.
d) take the Strong Interest Inventory (SII).

b) change the verbalization to an "I" statement.

64

In gestalt therapy unexpressed emotions are known as:
a) unfinished business.
b) the emerging gestalt.
c) form/figure language.
d) the top dog.

a) unfinished business.

65

Which statement is true of the person-centered approach?
a) reflection is used a lot, yet the counselor rarely gives advice.
b) advice is given a lot.
c) reflection is rarely utilized.
d) closed-ended questions keep the sessions moving at a fast pace.

a) reflection is used a lot, yet the counselor rarely gives advice.

66

Rogers viewed man as:
a) basically evil.
b) driven by instincts.
c) a product of reinforcement.
d) positive when he develops in a warm, accepting, trusting environment.

d) positive when he develops in a warm, accepting, trusting environment.

67

Attending behavior that is verbal is also called:
a) verbal tracking.
b) clarifying.
c) reflection.
d) paraphrasing.

a) verbal tracking.

68

Allen E. Ivey has postulated three types of empathy:
a) positive, negative regard, and choice.
b) reflective, micro-empathy, and forced choice.
c) basic, subtractive, and addictive.
d) micro-empathy, basic, and level 8 empathy.

c) basic, subtractive, and addictive.