Theory and Paradigms for Abnormality (Exam 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Theory and Paradigms for Abnormality (Exam 1) Deck (61):
1

paradigm

-conceptual framework
-model for looking at something

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psychological paradigm

-specific assumptions about people's behavior and where it originates
-broad as continuity vs. discontinuity approach
-specific as a theoretical orientation

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What does a paradigm determine with psychological theories?

-what behaviors are "disordered"
-hypothesized etiology of disorder
-how to asses for presence of disorder
-how the behavior is classified
-proposed treatment of that disorder

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etiology

mechanism of problem

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treatment

intervention -> exposure -> helps control anxiety

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assessment

paradigms each have an affect on choice of assessment and intervention (ask questions)

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classification

call it a disorder or not

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locus of control

cause of the problem

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different paradigms have different assumptions about what creates human suffering, and what alleviates it

-each is complete
-has pros and cons
-each affects choice of assessment and intervention
-some are more scientific
-some are more applicable to psychology

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Are different paradigms culturally rooted?

yes, and they take an individual (not pluralistic) approach to pathology

each will understand psychopathology differently

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Do different paradigms affect how a behavior is labeled?

yes (ex: pathological, normal)

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Does context matter for different paradigms?

yes (ex: where the behavior occurs)

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What did Langer & Abelson's research study look at?

factors affecting classification

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What did the results of Langer & Abelson's research show?

determined there are inherent biases that affect systems of classification

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Why do the results matter for Langer & Abelson's research?

paradigm and context were affected

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paradigm of clinician (Langer & Abelson)

the paradigm that the diagnostician uses will cause us the perceive and interpret differently (theoretical orientation)

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context of clinician (Langer & Abelson)

context of the diagnostic situation (where the interview is conducted and who we think we're talking to)

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Which paradigm was most affected by Langer and Abelson's research and what does it show us?

theoretical orientation because it causes us to perceive and interpret differently

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What are the main paradigms? (5)

-psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
-humanistic/existential
-cognitive
-behavioral or learning
-biological

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What is the key for abnormal psychology and it's paradigms?

key is to examine which paradigm most effectively produces understanding of human behavior that can alleviate suffering

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What are the "traditional" models?

psychoanalytic/psychodynamic/Freudian Assumptions of psychopathology

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What role does unconscious play in the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic paradigm?

role of unconscious in suffering

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What does the unconscious conflict produce?

-tension -> neurotic behavior/anxiety
-conflicts NOT expressed directly when they have unconscious conflict

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Is early childhood attachment important in the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic paradigm?

yes

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What is the basic structure of the mind in the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic paradigm?

-Id (born with)
-Ego (I)
-Superego over I, over doing something

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What is the psychosexual development in the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic paradigm?

-oral
-anal
-phallic
-genital

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resolution of crisis (psychoanalytic/psychodynamic paradigm)

required for non problematic functioning

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What are the expression through ego defenses/mechanisms?

-repression
-fixation
-rationalization

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repression

banishment from consciousness highly threatening sexual or aggressive material

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fixation

person gets "stuck" in present level of development (oral, anal etc.)

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rationalization

invention of socially acceptable explanation for how you are behaving

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What are the symptoms of distress?

less functioning organism

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What does the use of defenses and what does it cost a person?

costs energy (overuse of defense mechanisms or too much energy into one)

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What are the assumptions of curative factors in psychoanalytic theory?

make the unconscious conscious

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What is insight or awareness?

-reduce or eliminate defense mechanisms
-need to free up energy being spent on defenses and conflicts to deal with everyday stressors
(make the unconscious conscious)

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What are the challenges for the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic paradigm?

-we cannot directly access unconscious conflict
-uses hypothetical constructs for problems

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Origins of Psychopathology (humanistic approaches)

-humanistic theory
-existentialist theory

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humanistic theory (humanism)

incongruence between ideal self and self concept
-how we understand ourselves becomes incongruent with what we actually see ourselves doing

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self concept of the humanistic theory

feel anxious when contact with info that is not consistent with how we view ourselves

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existentialist theory

-denying our own freedom and choices
-denying our own mortality
-failing to create personal meaning

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mechanism of change

Carl Rogers and Person Centered Approach

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Carl Rogers and Person Centered Approach (Assumptions of Curative Approach)

-needs to remove conditions of worth
-need to allow client to find meaning and do own growth

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needs to remove condition of worth

-want to help person become fully functioning
-continue to pursue our greatness, our own full potential
-self-actualization

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needs to allow client to find meaning and do own growth

client holds the key to psychological health happiness

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What are the assumptions of psychopathology in cognitive approaches?

thoughts are the cause of our problems
-can create negative cognitive triad (NCT)

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negative cognitive triad (NCT)

psychopathology occurs when NCT is combined with cognitive distortions (logical errors)

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cognitive schema

-templates for how we think about things
-can be dysfunctional and produce emotional problems (defective core schema)

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cognitive therapy (CT)

-very logical and rational approach
-empirically supported intervention
-combines behavioral activation (Cognitive Behavior Therapy, CBT)

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What was Aaron Beck known for?

cognitive therapy (CT)

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What are the assumptions of curative factors for cognitive approaches?

-identify dysfunctional core schema
-challenge cognitive distortions or false beliefs with evidence

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What is the overall key for assumptions of curative factors? (cognitive approaches)

think more accurately and effectively (will directly impact our feelings and actions)

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identify dysfunctional core schema

replace with more accurate and effective schema

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challenge cognitive distortions or false beliefs with evidence

look for more accurate thoughts

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What are the challenges to the cognitive approach?

-schema are metaphorical
-evidence that thoughts do not lead behavior, they follow behavior

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What are the assumptions of psychopathology for biological approaches?

psychological problems are caused by events at the biological (cellular) level

behavior at the level of physiology has direct expression at the level of psychology

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What events at the biological (cellular) level cause psychological problems?

-disruptions of neurotransmitters
-structural problems in the brain

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What are the assumptions of curative factors for biological approaches?

repairing disrupted neurotransmitter levels will produce a corresponding change in behavior

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Is biological treatments for psychological distress popular?

yes, they are very popular in our culture

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common biological treatments for psychological distress

drug therapies

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less common biological treatments for psychological distress

-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
-psychosurgery

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What are the challenges for biological approaches?

-do not actually know underlying cause of most psychological disorders

-not all drugs work for all people
tend to ignore larger context of human event

-tend to ignore larger context of human event