Flashcards in Therapeutic Options Deck (18):
How can cancer be prevented or treated?
-Prevented: diet, screening, genetics, stop people smoking, medication
-Treatment: surgery, radiotherapy, systemic therapy
What do the studies on diet say?
-lots of confounding factors
-CRC probably a link with red meat consumption
-Breast cancer probably link with saturated fat intake
-physical activity decreases risk
What screening is available?
-smear tests for cervical cancer
-faecal occult blood for CRC
-mammography for breast cancer
-PSA blood test fro prostate cancer
-MR/CT scanning or breath test for lung cancer
What can be offered to families with histories of CRC and FAP?
-they are autosomal dominant conditions
-screen families for APC mutations
-offer panprotocolectomy when adenomas found
What controversial chemo-preventions are there?
-primary oesophageal cancer= supplement diet with anti-oxidants
-primary breast cancer= prophylactic tamoxifen
-secondary previous H&N or lung cancers= give anti-oxidant supplements
What are local/regional treatment options?
-isolated limb perfusion
What are the systemic treatment options?
-whole body irradiation
How is cancer staged?
-where it is according to examination and use of radiology
-what kind of cancer according to pathology/cytology
What does surgery require?
What does radiotherapy require?
What are the 5 Rs of radiology?
What role does radiotherapy play in cancer treatment?
-of cancers cured 40% are cured by radiotherapy
-can be combined with chemotherapy
-important role in palliation
Why would cytotoxic drugs be used?
Describe adjuvant chemotherapy.
-accounts for an increasing amount of chemotherapy use
-aim is to improve survival
Describe palliative chemotherapy.
-accounts for about 50% of chemotherapy use
-main aim is to relieve symptoms
-may improve survival
-needs careful assessment
Describe neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
-more recent use of chemotherapy
-aims to either improve survival or reduce morbidity
-precedes surgery or radiotherapy
When does hormone therapy prove beneficial?
-Breast cancer= ER=ve and tamoxifen
-Prostate cancer= LHRH antagonists