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Principles of Disease > Therapeutic Options > Flashcards

Flashcards in Therapeutic Options Deck (18):
1

How can cancer be prevented or treated?

-Prevented: diet, screening, genetics, stop people smoking, medication
-Treatment: surgery, radiotherapy, systemic therapy

2

What do the studies on diet say?

-inconsistent
-lots of confounding factors
-CRC probably a link with red meat consumption
-Breast cancer probably link with saturated fat intake
-physical activity decreases risk

3

What screening is available?

-smear tests for cervical cancer
-faecal occult blood for CRC
-mammography for breast cancer
-PSA blood test fro prostate cancer
-MR/CT scanning or breath test for lung cancer

4

What can be offered to families with histories of CRC and FAP?

-they are autosomal dominant conditions
-screen families for APC mutations
-regular colonoscopy
-offer panprotocolectomy when adenomas found

5

What controversial chemo-preventions are there?

-primary oesophageal cancer= supplement diet with anti-oxidants
-primary breast cancer= prophylactic tamoxifen
-secondary previous H&N or lung cancers= give anti-oxidant supplements

6

What are local/regional treatment options?

-surgery
-radiotherapy
-ablation
-isolated limb perfusion

7

What are the systemic treatment options?

-hormonal therapy
-chemotherapy
-immunotherapy
-whole body irradiation

8

How is cancer staged?

-where it is according to examination and use of radiology
-what kind of cancer according to pathology/cytology

9

What does surgery require?

anatomical clearance

10

What does radiotherapy require?

-anatomical coverage

11

What are the 5 Rs of radiology?

-radio sensitivity
-repair
-re-population
-re-oxygenation
-re-assortment

12

What role does radiotherapy play in cancer treatment?

-of cancers cured 40% are cured by radiotherapy
-can be combined with chemotherapy
-important role in palliation

13

Why would cytotoxic drugs be used?

-curative
-palliative
-adjuvant
-neoadjuvant

14

Describe adjuvant chemotherapy.

-accounts for an increasing amount of chemotherapy use
-aim is to improve survival
-follows surgery

15

Describe palliative chemotherapy.

-accounts for about 50% of chemotherapy use
-main aim is to relieve symptoms
-may improve survival
-needs careful assessment

16

Describe neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

-more recent use of chemotherapy
-aims to either improve survival or reduce morbidity
-precedes surgery or radiotherapy

17

When does hormone therapy prove beneficial?

-Breast cancer= ER=ve and tamoxifen
-Prostate cancer= LHRH antagonists

18

What immune therapies are there?

SPECIFIC
-monoclonal antibodies: (rituximab and B cell NHL: +/- radioactivity) (trastuzumab and response in HER2 +ve breast and gastric cancer)
-programmed cell death pathway PD-1 (uses immune system to attack foreign cancer cells)
-chimeric antigen receptor CAR T-cells (artificial T-cell receptors, using retroviral vectors to give an specific cell killing function directed against cancer cells)
NON-SPECIFIC