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Flashcards in Third test on the biological basis of behavior Deck (130):
1

neuron

nerve cell, basic building block of the nervous system

2

dendrites

neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

3

axon

neuron extensions that passes messages through its branches to other neurons

4

Myelin sheet

fatty tissue layer that segmentally encases the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission seed as neural impulses hop from sausage like node to the next

5

action potential

neural impulse; a breif electrical charge that travels

6

refractory period

a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired

7

threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

8

all or non response

a neurons reaction of either firing (with a full strength response) or not firing

9

synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. this tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or the synaptic cleft

10

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gap between neurons. these travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

11

reuptake

a nuerotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron

12

endorphins

natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

13

agonist

a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, stimulates a response

14

antagonist

a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, inhibits oe blocks a response

15

nervous system

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

16

central nervous system (cns)

the brain and spinal chord

17

peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

18

nerves

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

19

sensory (afferent) neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal chord

20

motor (afferent) neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal chord to the muscles and glads

21

interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal chord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor inputs

22

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that control's the body's skeletal muscles. also call the skeletal muscle system

23

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

the part of the peripheral nervous system tha controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart(. its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms

24

sympathetic nervous system

the division of tha autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

25

parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

26

sympathetic nervous system does what?

arouses

27

Parasympathetic nervous system does what?

calms

28

endocrine system?

the body's "slow" chemical communication system: a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

29

hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues

30

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that hep arouse the body in times of stress

31

pituitary gland

the endocrine system's most influential gland , regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

32

lesion

tissue destruction. a brain lesion is a naturally or experimental caused destruction of brain tissue

33

electroencephalogram

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface. these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

34

CT (computed tomography)

a series of x ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brains structure

35

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

36

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

puts the head in a strong magnetic field which spins the atoms of the brain molecules. Then radio waves are pulsed to momentarily disorient the atoms. When the atoms return, they provided detailed images of the brains soft tissue

37

fMRI (functional MRI)

a technique for revealing blood flow, and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans

38

What does fMRI show?

brain function as well as its structure

39

brainstem

the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal chord swells as it enters the skull

40

what is the brainstem responsible for

automatic survival functions

41

Medulla

controls heartbeat and breathing, base of the brainstem

42

Thalamus

brain's sensory control center located on top of the brainstem

43

what does the thalamus do

directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

44

Reticular Formation

a nerve network that travels through the brainstem and thalamus

45

what does the reticular formation play a role in

arousal

46

Cerebellum

at the rear of the brainstem, enables nonverbal learning and memory, deals with coordinating movement output and balance, helps you know if you are staring up straight or sitting up straight

47

Limbic system

associated with emotions and drives

48

what makes up the limbic system

hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus

49

Amygdala

linked to emotions, including perceiving emotions and the processing of emotional memories

50

Hypothalamus

directs several activities like eating, drinking, body temperature

51

hippocampus

linked to memory

52

Corpus callosum

connects two hemispheres and helps relay messages to them

53

Cerebral cortex

body's ultimate control and information processing center

54

Glial Cells

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons, may also play a role in learning and thinking

55

frontal lobes

involved in speaking and muscle movements as well s making plans and judgements

56

parietal lobes

receives sensory information from the visual fields

57

occipital lobes

includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

58

temporal lobes

includes the auditory areas that receive information primarily from the opposite ear

59

motor cortex

area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements

60

Somatosensory cortex

registers and processes body touch and movement sensations, if you stimulate this tissue u may feel something on the shoulder, you stimulate it on the side you may feel something on the face

61

Association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking

62

plasticity

brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing damage or by building new pathways based on experience.

63

nerve cell, basic building block of the nervous system

neuron

64

neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

dendrites

65

neuron extensions that passes messages through its branches to other neurons

axon

66

fatty tissue layer that segmentally encases the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission seed as neural impulses hop from sausage like node to the next

Myelin sheet

67

neural impulse; a breif electrical charge that travels

action potential

68

a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired

refractory period

69

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

threshold

70

a neurons reaction of either firing (with a full strength response) or not firing

all or non response

71

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. this tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or the synaptic cleft

synapse

72

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gap between neurons. these travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

neurotransmitters

73

a nuerotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron

reuptake

74

natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

endorphins

75

a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, stimulates a response

agonist

76

a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, inhibits oe blocks a response

antagonist

77

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

nervous system

78

the brain and spinal chord

central nervous system (cns)

79

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

peripheral nervous system

80

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

nerves

81

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal chord

sensory (afferent) neurons

82

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal chord to the muscles and glads

motor (afferent) neurons

83

neurons within the brain and spinal chord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor inputs

interneurons

84

the division of the peripheral nervous system that control's the body's skeletal muscles. also call the skeletal muscle system

somatic nervous system

85

the part of the peripheral nervous system tha controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart(. its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

86

the division of tha autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

sympathetic nervous system

87

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

parasympathetic nervous system

88

arouses

sympathetic nervous system does what?

89

calms

Parasympathetic nervous system does what?

90

the body's "slow" chemical communication system: a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

endocrine system?

91

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues

hormones

92

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that hep arouse the body in times of stress

adrenal glands

93

the endocrine system's most influential gland , regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

pituitary gland

94

tissue destruction. a brain lesion is a naturally or experimental caused destruction of brain tissue

lesion

95

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface. these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

electroencephalogram

96

a series of x ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brains structure

CT (computed tomography)

97

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

98

puts the head in a strong magnetic field which spins the atoms of the brain molecules. Then radio waves are pulsed to momentarily disorient the atoms. When the atoms return, they provided detailed images of the brains soft tissue

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

99

a technique for revealing blood flow, and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans

fMRI (functional MRI)

100

brain function as well as its structure

What does fMRI show?

101

the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal chord swells as it enters the skull

brainstem

102

automatic survival functions

what is the brainstem responsible for

103

controls heartbeat and breathing, base of the brainstem

Medulla

104

brain's sensory control center located on top of the brainstem

Thalamus

105

directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

what does the thalamus do

106

a nerve network that travels through the brainstem and thalamus

Reticular Formation

107

arousal

what does the reticular formation play a role in

108

at the rear of the brainstem, enables nonverbal learning and memory, deals with coordinating movement output and balance, helps you know if you are staring up straight or sitting up straight

Cerebellum

109

associated with emotions and drives

Limbic system

110

hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus

what makes up the limbic system

111

linked to emotions, including perceiving emotions and the processing of emotional memories

Amygdala

112

directs several activities like eating, drinking, body temperature

Hypothalamus

113

linked to memory

hippocampus

114

connects two hemispheres and helps relay messages to them

Corpus callosum

115

body's ultimate control and information processing center

Cerebral cortex

116

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons, may also play a role in learning and thinking

Glial Cells

117

involved in speaking and muscle movements as well s making plans and judgements

frontal lobes

118

receives sensory information from the visual fields

parietal lobes

118

receives sensory information from the visual fields

parietal lobes

119

includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

occipital lobes

120

includes the auditory areas that receive information primarily from the opposite ear

temporal lobes

120

includes the auditory areas that receive information primarily from the opposite ear

temporal lobes

121

area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements

motor cortex

121

area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements

motor cortex

122

registers and processes body touch and movement sensations, if you stimulate this tissue u may feel something on the shoulder, you stimulate it on the side you may feel something on the face

Somatosensory cortex

122

registers and processes body touch and movement sensations, if you stimulate this tissue u may feel something on the shoulder, you stimulate it on the side you may feel something on the face

Somatosensory cortex

123

areas of the cerebral cortex involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking

Association areas

123

areas of the cerebral cortex involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking

Association areas

124

brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing damage or by building new pathways based on experience.

plasticity

124

brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing damage or by building new pathways based on experience.

plasticity