"This will be in the exam" [Incomplete] Flashcards Preview

Organic & Food Chemistry > "This will be in the exam" [Incomplete] > Flashcards

Flashcards in "This will be in the exam" [Incomplete] Deck (310):
1

Give a reaction producing a nucleoside

Nucleotide + NaOH → Nucleoside

2

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L-Fructose

3

Give the structure of Caffiene

Note the Purine Ring

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4

What occurs when alcohol is placed in water?

The alcohol dissociates, giving Hions

Forms a weak acid

5

Give the general formula of the alkynes

CnH2n-2

6

Agar is...

A Gelling Agent

7

Aniline is a...

Weak Base

8

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Pyridine

9

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Aniline

10

  1. What is shown?
  2. What is in the Red box?

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  1. Gellan Gum
  2. Glyceric acid ester

11

Phytol is found on...

Chlorophyll a

12

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Benzpyrene

13

Sodium Alginate is...

A Gelling Agent

14

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Benzyl alcohol

15

4-Hydroxynonenal / 4-HNE is...

A Contaminant

16

Sulphites are...

Preservatives

17

Terpenes are derived from...

Isoprene

18

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Benzophenone

19

What are the three conditions for aromaticity?

Molecule should be Planar

Number of delocalised electrons = 4n + 2 (Huckel Rule)

Each carbon has an unhybridised P2 atomic orbital

20

Carrageenans are...

Gelling Agents

21

Gum Arabic is...

A Gelling Agent

22

Give the general formula of the alkenes

CnH2n

23

Which Azo dye is toxic?

Orange GNN

24

Give the N-nitroso compound reaction

Secondary Amine + HNO2

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25

The D and L descriptors of enantomers do not specify...

...the sign (+ or -) of the optical rotation

26

Trichothecenes are...

Mycotoxins

27

Give the Structure of an antioxidant

Ethoxyquin

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28

Perchlorate / ClO4- is...

A Contaminant

29

ROS stands for...

Reactive Oxygen Species

30

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Isopropylamine

31

What are antioxidants used for?

Preserving food by reducing the reaction with oxygen or light

32

What process is shown?

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Saponification

33

What is saponification?

Hydrolysis of Esters or Fats

Soap-making

34

Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins are...

Contaminants

35

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T-butyl alcohol

36

Sorbic Acid / 2,4-hexadienoic acid is...

A Preservative

37

Anthocyanins are...

Colours

38

Give the Structure of Purine

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39

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Acetone

(Oxo form)

40

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Vitamin B6

41

CH4

Methane

42

What is multipoint attachment (MPA)

Total of 8 interaction sites between a sweetner and the sweetness receptor

43

Disodium Inosinate / IMP is...

A Flavour Enhancer

44

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Alloxanthin

Note the triple bonds

45

Give a reaction showing the Reduction of Amides with LiAIH4

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46

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Nicotinamide

47

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Lutein

48

Sulphur Dioxide is...

A Preservative and Antioxidant

49

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Propanal

50

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Phenylhydrazine

51

Name the functional group

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Alkane

alkyl- / -ane

52

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Trans Decaline

53

Propyl Gallate is...

An Antioxidant

54

Give the general formula of the cycloalkanes

CnH2n

55

L-Glutamic Acid is...

A flavour enhancer

56

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Hexamethylenediamine

[Nylon]

57

C2H6

Ethane

58

Give a practical use of Ethylene Glycol

Gas Sterilisation

59

Ascorbic Acid is...

An Antioxidant

60

5 carbon chain prefix

Pent-

61

Where is (+)benzo[a]pyrene-7, 8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide found?

What does it do?

In tobacco smoke

Disrupts the double helix structure of DNA making it carcinogenic

62

Name the functional group

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Alcohol

hydroxy- / -ol

63

Give the Reaction for Preperation of an aldehyde from a primary alcohol

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64

Photooxidation and many ageing processes are due to the presence of...

Singlet Oxygen 1O2

65

Give the general formula of the alkanes

CnH2n+2

66

Glycerol and Fatty acids are linked by...

An Ester bond

67

Aspartame / APM is...

A Sweetner

68

Parabens are...

Preservatives

69

Give a general reaction showing the catalytic reduction of nitriles

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70

1 carbon chain prefix

Meth-

71

Carbamate Insecticides / Carbaryl is a kind of...

Organophosphate Pesticide

72

Carminic Acid and Carmine are...

Colours

73

Ethyl Carbamate / EC is...

A Contaminant

74

C8H18

Octane

75

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L - Glucose

76

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Lycopene

77

Cadmium / Cd(II) is...

A Contaminant

78

C5H12

Pentane

79

C12H26

Dodecane

80

Disodium Guanylate / GMP is...

A Flavour Enhancer

81

Synthetic Polyphenols are...

Antioxidants

82

Bisphenol A / BPA is...

A Contaminant

83

Name the functional group

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Aldehyde

formyl- / -al

84

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Thiophene

85

C9H20

Nonane

86

Chlorophyllins are...

Colours

87

ROO• + ArO-H →

[Ar = Aromatic Ring]

ROO-H + ArO•

88

Xanthan Gum is...

A Gelling Agent

89

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D-Fructose

90

Where do nucleobases and carbohydrates bond on a molecule?

Red Box indicates binding area

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91

Butylated hydroxyanisole / BHA is...

An Antioxidant

92

Xanthophylls are...

Colours

93

Chelating Agents are...

Preservatives

94

Give the Structure of Imidazole

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95

Give the structure of Acetaldehyde

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96

A protein that allows sour foods to taste sweet, it also tastes sweet itself

Curculin

97

What is defined as a reducing sugar?

Any sugar that can act as a reducing agent due to a free Aldehyde or Ketone group

98

Propionic Acid is...

A Preservative

99

Gelatin is...

A Gelling Agent

100

What is the mass-fraction unit for parts per million?

mg/kg

101

Name the functional group

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Tertiary Amine

amino- / -amine

102

Erythorbic Acid is...

An Antioxidant

103

Sodium Cyclamate is...

A Sweetner

104

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Phenanthrene

105

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Ethylamine

106

Sucralose is...

A Sweetner

107

Name the functional group

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Amide

carboxamido- / -amide

108

Gellan Gum is...

A Gelling Agent

109

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Anthracene

110

Ninhydrin-test

Used to detect proteins

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111

What is the mass-fraction unit for parts per billion?

µg/kg

112

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Chatechol

113

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Superaspartame

114

Lecithin is...

A Gelling Agent

115

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Vitamin D3

116

Give the Functional group fo Azo Dyes

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117

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Furan

118

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Isoprene

119

Formula to calculate Specific Rotation

α = Rotation

γ = Mass Conc.

l = Length of polarimeter tube

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120

Name the functional group

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Benzene Derivitive

phenyl- / -benzene

121

L and D relative configuration refers to...

The optical activity of the isomer

122

Dimethyl dicarbonate / DMDC is...

A Preservative

123

Casein is...

 A Gelling Agent

124

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Indole Ring

125

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Cis Decaline

126

Xylitol is...

A Sweetner

127

What is the characteristic reaction of the aromatics?

Electrophilic Substitution

128

Nucleic Acid is made from...

Nucleotides

129

Antioxidants are usually...

Reducing agents

130

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Cholic Acid

131

Galacturonic acid can be converted with ammonia to produce...

Carboxylic acid amide

132

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Toluene

133

Monosodium Glutamate / MSG is...

A Flavour Enhancer

134

Tefluthrin is a...

Pyrethroid

135

Give the Structure of Gonane

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136

C30H62

Triacontane

137

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Menthol

138

Name the functional group

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Ether

139

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n-Butylamine

140

Agar is derived from...

Agarose

141

Components of a Nucleotide

Phosphae

Sugar

Amine Base

142

Starch is...

A Gelling Agent

143

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Acetone

(Enol form)

144

Benzoic Acid is...

A Preservative

145

Arsenic / As(III)/(V) is...

A Contaminant

Monosodium methyl arsenate

146

Give the structure of Glycerol

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147

Give the reactants of the Tollens reaction

RCHO(aq) + 2Ag(NH3)2+ 3OH-(aq)

RCHO = an aldehyde

148

Ziram is...

A Fungicide

149

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Cadaverine

150

Mevalonic Acid → 

[-CO2, -H2O]

Isoprene

151

Name the functional group

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Ester

alkanoyloxy- / -alkyl alkanoate

152

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Progesterone

153

All monosaccharides are...

Reducing Sugars

154

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Naphthalene

155

Ethylenediametatraacetic Acid / EDTA is...

A Stabilising Agent

156

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D-Glucose

157

Give the structure of (+)benzo[a]pyrene-7, 8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide

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158

Give the Structure of Formaldehyde

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159

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Vitamin E

160

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Lactones

Contain an ester group as part of a ring

161

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Beta-Carotene

162

Give the structure of Urea

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163

What kinds of disaccharides are there?

Reducing and Non-reducing

164

Give the Hemiacetal structure of Dehydroascorbic Acid

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165

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Benzyl Chloride

166

  1. What is shown?
  2. What is in the Red box?

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  1. Xanthan Gum
  2. Pyruvic Acid Ketal

167

C6H14

Hexane

168

What is the mass-fraction unit for parts per hundred?

cg/g

169

Carmine contains a central...cation

Aluminium

170

C4H10

Butane

171

R• + ArO-H →

[Ar = Aromatic Ring]

R-H + ArO•

172

Perfluorooctanoic Acid is...

A Contaminant

173

What is shown?

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Keto-enol Tautomerism

174

Give the Skeleton of Steroids

6, 6, 6, 5

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175

Flavonoids are...

Colours

176

The notable product of the tollens-reaction is...

Free Silver

2Ag(s)

177

Vinclozolin is...

A Fungicide

178

9 carbon chain prefix

Non-

179

The chemical name for Serotonin

5-hydroxytryptamine

180

Chlorophylls are...

Colours

181

Racemic Mixture is...

Optically inactive due to the intermolecular compensation

182

Steviol Glycosides...

A Sweetner

183

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Diphenylamine

184

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L-rhamnose

185

Speed of Light (C) =

λ • ν

186

Guar Gum is...

A Gelling Agent

187

What is shown in the red boxes?

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Carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid are esterified with methanol

188

Which are more stable - cis or trans isomers?

Trans

189

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Acetophenone

190

Alginic acid/Algin/Alginate is...

A Gelling Agent

191

What is an enantomer?

Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable (non-identical) mirror images of each other

192

Riboflavin is...

A Colour

193

Betanin is...

A Colour

194

Sorbitol is...

A Sweetner

195

Energy of a Wave (E) = 

h • ν = h • c / λ

196

Butylated hydroxotoluene / BHT is...

An Antioxidant

197

A glycoprotein that allows sour foods to taste sweet

Miraculin

198

Quinine is...

A Flavour Enhancer

199

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T-butyl Chloride

200

Give the structure of a food colour

Flavone

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201

Give two examples of Alkaloids

A: Pyridine

B: Piperidine

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202

Name the functional group

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Alkyne

alkynyl- / -yne

203

3 carbon chain prefix

Prop-

204

Give the Hofmann reaction

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205

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Agarose Molecule

206

Give 3 mycotoxins of current concern

Aflatoxins

Ochratoxin A

Fusarium

207

Tetraterpenes are...

Colours

208

Caramel is...

A colour

209

Give a Type A and a Type B Trichothecenes

Type A: T-2 toxin

Type B: deoxynivalenol

210

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Vitamin A

211

What is the mass-fraction unit for parts per trillion?

ng/kg

212

Give the structure of Isoprene

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213

DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is...

A Contaminant

Pesticide

214

10 carbon chain prefix

Dec-

215

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Phenoxy

Also writen as ArO•

relatively less reactive than other antioxidants

 

216

6 carbon chain prefix

Hex-

217

Carotenoids are...

Colours

218

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Anisole

219

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Lugduname

220

What process is shown in the reaction?

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Photooxidation of Lipids

221

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

222

Cellulose is...

A Gelling Agent

223

2-phenylphenol / OPP is...

A Preservative

224

Anoxomer is...

A polymeric Antioxidant

225

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Cis Decaline

226

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Ethylene glycol

227

Octyl Gallate is...

An Antioxidant

228

Pectins are rich in...

D-galacturonic acid

229

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Acetyle Chloride

230

Give a reaction of Nucleotide Formation

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231

Antimicrobial Agents are used in food against...

Bacteria, Yeasts and Moulds

232

C7H16

Heptane

233

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Bile Acid

234

C3H8

Propane

235

The product of an Acid Catalysed reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol is...

An ester

236

Amarogentin is...

A Flavour Enhancer

237

Give the Acyl Functional Group

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238

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Benzaldehyde

239

7 carbon chain prefix

Hept-

240

Nitrites and Nitrates are...

e.g Sodium Nitrite

Preservatives

241

Name the functional group

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Primary Amine

amino- / -amine

242

Name the functional group

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Ketone

-oyl- / oxo- / -one

243

Name the functional group

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Secondary Amine

amino- / -amine

244

Thiomersal is...

A Contaminant

thought to cause autism

245

Ethoxyquin is...

An Antioxidant

246

Saccharin is...

A Sweetner

247

Give the structure of a Flavour Enhancer

Xylitol

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248

2 carbon chain prefix

Eth-

249

Give the Structure of Cholesterol

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250

Thiabendazole is...

A Preservative

251

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Salicylaldehyde

252

What is an Epimer?

Diastereomets that differ in the configuration of one stereogenic center

253

C11H24

Undecane

254

Mixtures containing the enantomers with ratio of 1:1 are called...

Racemic Mixture

255

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Resorcinol

256

Acesulfame Potassium / Acesulfame K is...

A Sweetner

257

4 carbon chain prefix

But-

258

Tocopherols are...

Antioxidants

259

Monellin is...

A Sweetner

260

Name the functional group

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Cyanate

cyanato- / -alkyl cyanate

261

Name the functional group

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Alkene

alkenyl- / -ene

262

Ascorbyl Sterate is...

An Antioxidant

263

Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone / NHDC

A Sweetner

264

The S and R designators are used to indicate...

Absolute configuration

265

Borax is...

A Preservative

266

Thaumatin is...

A Sweetner

267

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Pyrene

268

Give the reaction for the combustion of propane

C3H8 + 5O→ 3CO2 + 4H2O

269

Indicated in the red box is a...

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Secondary Alcohol

sec-alcohol

270

Name the functional group

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Carboxylic Acid

carboxy- / -oic acid

271

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Hydroquinone

272

Write the reaction of T-butyl Chloride and NaOH

What kind of reaction is this?

Nucleophilic Substitution

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273

Which receptors are Umami tasted with?

Glutamate Receptors

274

What is shown in the red box

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A c-glycoside glycosidic bond

Carminic Acid Molecule

275

Indicated in the red box is a...

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Tertiary Alcohol

ter-alcohol

276

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Penicillnes (general formula)

277

Name the Functional Group

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Sulfonic Acid

278

Curcumin is...

A Colour

279

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Testosterone

Note double oxygen bond - Ketone

280

Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids are...

Contaminants

Pesticides

281

Animals fats and vegetable fats are...

Triacylglyceros

Triglycerides

282

Ethyl Gallate is...

An Antioxidant

283

Fumonisin B1 is...

A Contaminant

Formed by Maize Moulds

284

Lead is...

A Contaminant

285

What is characteristic of alkenes?

Double bonding

286

C20H42

Icosane

287

Give the Structure of Glucose

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288

Formula to calculate the Difference/Distance between two colours

ΔE = E- E= hc/λ

λ = Wavelength

h = Planck's

c = Speed of Light

289

The R and S descriptors do not specify...

...the sign (+ or -) of the optical rotation

290

Xanthophylls are...

Colours

291

Name the general formula

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Secondary Alcohol

292

8 carbon chain prefix

Oct-

293

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Putrescine

294

Pectins are...

Gelling Agents

295

Biphenyl is...

A Preservative

296

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Vitamin C / Ascorbic Acid

297

C10H22

Decane

298

Erythritol is...

A Sweetner

299

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Chlorophyllin

Note the Copper Cation

300

Fish and shellfish accumulate...in their bodies

Mercury

methylmercury cation

301

Give the Structure of a preservative

Biphenyl

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302

Locust bean gum is...

A Gelling Agent

303

Methamidophos is...

A Contaminant

Pesticide

304

Give the Structure of Paracetamol

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305

tert-Butylhydroquinone / TBHQ is...

An Antioxidant

306

Give the Structure of a Gelling Agent

Dextrin

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307

What causes the tetrahederal structure?

Sp3 Hybridisation

308

Give the "Oxidation Line"

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309

Give four Oxidising agents

KMnO- Potassium Permanganate (Strong)

K2CrO4 - Potassium Cromate

K2Cr2O- Potassium Dichromate

H2O- Hydrogen Peroxide (Strong)

310

H2SOin a reaction usually means...

Water Elimination