"This will be in the exam" [Incomplete] Flashcards Preview

Veterinary and Food Chemistry > "This will be in the exam" [Incomplete] > Flashcards

Flashcards in "This will be in the exam" [Incomplete] Deck (323):
1

Give a reaction producing a nucleoside

Nucleotide + NaOH → Nucleoside

2

L-Fructose

3

Give the structure of Caffiene

Note the Purine Ring

4

What occurs when alcohol is placed in water?

The alcohol dissociates, giving Hions

Forms a weak acid

5

Give the general formula of the alkynes

CnH2n-2

6

Agar is...

A Gelling Agent

7

Aniline is a...

Weak Base

8

Pyridine

9

Aniline

10

  1. What is shown?
  2. What is in the Red box?

  1. Gellan Gum
  2. Glyceric acid ester

11

Phytol is found on...

Chlorophyll a

12

Benzpyrene

13

Sodium Alginate is...

A Gelling Agent

14

Benzyl alcohol

15

4-Hydroxynonenal / 4-HNE is...

A Contaminant

16

Sulphites are...

Preservatives

17

Terpenes are derived from...

Isoprene

18

Benzophenone

19

What are the three conditions for aromaticity?

Molecule should be Planar

Number of delocalised electrons = 4n + 2 (Huckel Rule)

Each carbon has an unhybridised P2 atomic orbital

20

Carrageenans are...

Gelling Agents

21

Gum Arabic is...

A Gelling Agent

22

Give the general formula of the alkenes

CnH2n

23

Which Azo dye is toxic?

Orange GNN

24

Give the N-nitroso compound reaction

Secondary Amine + HNO2

25

The D and L descriptors of enantomers do not specify...

...the sign (+ or -) of the optical rotation

26

Trichothecenes are...

Mycotoxins

27

Give the Structure of an antioxidant

Ethoxyquin

28

Perchlorate / ClO4- is...

A Contaminant

29

ROS stands for...

Reactive Oxygen Species

30

Isopropylamine

31

What are antioxidants used for?

Preserving food by reducing the reaction with oxygen or light

32

What process is shown?

Saponification

33

What is saponification?

Hydrolysis of Esters or Fats

Soap-making

34

Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins are...

Contaminants

35

T-butyl alcohol

36

Sorbic Acid / 2,4-hexadienoic acid is...

A Preservative

37

Anthocyanins are...

Colours

38

Give the Structure of Purine

39

Acetone

(Oxo form)

40

Vitamin B6

41

CH4

Methane

42

What is multipoint attachment (MPA)

Total of 8 interaction sites between a sweetner and the sweetness receptor

43

Disodium Inosinate / IMP is...

A Flavour Enhancer

44

Alloxanthin

Note the triple bonds

45

Give a reaction showing the Reduction of Amides with LiAIH4

46

Nicotinamide

47

Lutein

48

Sulphur Dioxide is...

A Preservative and Antioxidant

49

Propanal

50

Phenylhydrazine

51

Name the functional group

Alkane

alkyl- / -ane

52

Trans Decaline

53

Propyl Gallate is...

An Antioxidant

54

Give the general formula of the cycloalkanes

CnH2n

55

L-Glutamic Acid is...

A flavour enhancer

56

Hexamethylenediamine

[Nylon]

57

C2H6

Ethane

58

Give a practical use of Ethylene Glycol

Gas Sterilisation

59

Ascorbic Acid is...

An Antioxidant

60

5 carbon chain prefix

Pent-

61

Where is (+)benzo[a]pyrene-7, 8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide found?

What does it do?

In tobacco smoke

Disrupts the double helix structure of DNA making it carcinogenic

62

Name the functional group

Alcohol

hydroxy- / -ol

63

Give the Reaction for Preperation of an aldehyde from a primary alcohol

64

Photooxidation and many ageing processes are due to the presence of...

Singlet Oxygen 1O2

65

Give the general formula of the alkanes

CnH2n+2

66

Glycerol and Fatty acids are linked by...

An Ester bond

67

Aspartame / APM is...

A Sweetner

68

Parabens are...

Preservatives

69

Give a general reaction showing the catalytic reduction of nitriles

70

1 carbon chain prefix

Meth-

71

Carbamate Insecticides / Carbaryl is a kind of...

Organophosphate Pesticide

72

Carminic Acid and Carmine are...

Colours

73

Ethyl Carbamate / EC is...

A Contaminant

74

C8H18

Octane

75

L - Glucose

76

Lycopene

77

Cadmium / Cd(II) is...

A Contaminant

78

C5H12

Pentane

79

C12H26

Dodecane

80

Disodium Guanylate / GMP is...

A Flavour Enhancer

81

Synthetic Polyphenols are...

Antioxidants

82

Bisphenol A / BPA is...

A Contaminant

83

Name the functional group

Aldehyde

formyl- / -al

84

Thiophene

85

C9H20

Nonane

86

Chlorophyllins are...

Colours

87

ROO• + ArO-H →

[Ar = Aromatic Ring]

ROO-H + ArO•

88

Xanthan Gum is...

A Gelling Agent

89

D-Fructose

90

Where do nucleobases and carbohydrates bond on a molecule?

Red Box indicates binding area

91

Butylated hydroxyanisole / BHA is...

An Antioxidant

92

Xanthophylls are...

Colours

93

Chelating Agents are...

Preservatives

94

Give the Structure of Imidazole

95

Give the structure of Acetaldehyde

96

A protein that allows sour foods to taste sweet, it also tastes sweet itself

Curculin

97

What is defined as a reducing sugar?

Any sugar that can act as a reducing agent due to a free Aldehyde or Ketone group

98

Propionic Acid is...

A Preservative

99

Gelatin is...

A Gelling Agent

100

What is the mass-fraction unit for parts per million?

mg/kg

101

Name the functional group

Tertiary Amine

amino- / -amine

102

Erythorbic Acid is...

An Antioxidant

103

Sodium Cyclamate is...

A Sweetner

104

Phenanthrene

105

Ethylamine

106

Sucralose is...

A Sweetner

107

Name the functional group

Amide

carboxamido- / -amide

108

Gellan Gum is...

A Gelling Agent

109

Anthracene

110

Ninhydrin-test

Used to detect proteins

111

What is the mass-fraction unit for parts per billion?

µg/kg

112

Chatechol

113

Superaspartame

114

Lecithin is...

A Gelling Agent

115

Vitamin D3

116

Give the Functional group fo Azo Dyes

117

Furan

118

Isoprene

119

Formula to calculate Specific Rotation

α = Rotation

γ = Mass Conc.

l = Length of polarimeter tube

120

Name the functional group

Benzene Derivitive

phenyl- / -benzene

121

L and D relative configuration refers to...

The optical activity of the isomer

122

Dimethyl dicarbonate / DMDC is...

A Preservative

123

Casein is...

 A Gelling Agent

124

Indole Ring

125

Cis Decaline

126

Xylitol is...

A Sweetner

127

What is the characteristic reaction of the aromatics?

Electrophilic Substitution

128

Nucleic Acid is made from...

Nucleotides

129

Antioxidants are usually...

Reducing agents

130

Cholic Acid

131

Galacturonic acid can be converted with ammonia to produce...

Carboxylic acid amide

132

Toluene

133

Monosodium Glutamate / MSG is...

A Flavour Enhancer

134

Tefluthrin is a...

Pyrethroid

135

Give the Structure of Gonane

136

C30H62

Triacontane

137

Menthol

138

Name the functional group

Ether

139

n-Butylamine

140

Agar is derived from...

Agarose

141

Components of a Nucleotide

Phosphae

Sugar

Amine Base

142

Starch is...

A Gelling Agent

143

Acetone

(Enol form)

144

Benzoic Acid is...

A Preservative

145

Arsenic / As(III)/(V) is...

A Contaminant

Monosodium methyl arsenate

146

Give the structure of Glycerol

147

Give the reactants of the Tollens reaction

RCHO(aq) + 2Ag(NH3)2+ 3OH-(aq)

RCHO = an aldehyde

148

Ziram is...

A Fungicide

149

Cadaverine

150

Mevalonic Acid → 

[-CO2, -H2O]

Isoprene

151

Name the functional group

Ester

alkanoyloxy- / -alkyl alkanoate

152

Progesterone

153

All monosaccharides are...

Reducing Sugars

154

Naphthalene

155

Ethylenediametatraacetic Acid / EDTA is...

A Stabilising Agent

156

D-Glucose

157

Give the structure of (+)benzo[a]pyrene-7, 8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide

158

Give the Structure of Formaldehyde

159

Vitamin E

160

Lactones

Contain an ester group as part of a ring

161

Beta-Carotene

162

Give the structure of Urea

163

What kinds of disaccharides are there?

Reducing and Non-reducing

164

Give the Hemiacetal structure of Dehydroascorbic Acid

165

Benzyl Chloride

166

  1. What is shown?
  2. What is in the Red box?

  1. Xanthan Gum
  2. Pyruvic Acid Ketal

167

C6H14

Hexane

168

What is the mass-fraction unit for parts per hundred?

cg/g

169

Carmine contains a central...cation

Aluminium

170

C4H10

Butane

171

R• + ArO-H →

[Ar = Aromatic Ring]

R-H + ArO•

172

Perfluorooctanoic Acid is...

A Contaminant

173

What is shown?

Keto-enol Tautomerism

174

Give the Skeleton of Steroids

6, 6, 6, 5

175

Flavonoids are...

Colours

176

The notable product of the tollens-reaction is...

Free Silver

2Ag(s)

177

Vinclozolin is...

A Fungicide

178

9 carbon chain prefix

Non-

179

The chemical name for Serotonin

5-hydroxytryptamine

180

Chlorophylls are...

Colours

181

Racemic Mixture is...

Optically inactive due to the intermolecular compensation

182

Steviol Glycosides...

A Sweetner

183

Diphenylamine

184

L-rhamnose

185

Speed of Light (C) =

λ • ν

186

Guar Gum is...

A Gelling Agent

187

What is shown in the red boxes?

Carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid are esterified with methanol

188

Which are more stable - cis or trans isomers?

Trans

189

Acetophenone

190

Alginic acid/Algin/Alginate is...

A Gelling Agent

191

What is an enantomer?

Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable (non-identical) mirror images of each other

192

Riboflavin is...

A Colour

193

Betanin is...

A Colour

194

Sorbitol is...

A Sweetner

195

Energy of a Wave (E) = 

h • ν = h • c / λ

196

Butylated hydroxotoluene / BHT is...

An Antioxidant

197

A glycoprotein that allows sour foods to taste sweet

Miraculin

198

Quinine is...

A Flavour Enhancer

199

T-butyl Chloride

200

Give the structure of a food colour

Flavone

201

Give two examples of Alkaloids

A: Pyridine

B: Piperidine

202

Name the functional group

Alkyne

alkynyl- / -yne

203

3 carbon chain prefix

Prop-

204

Give the Hofmann reaction

205

Agarose Molecule

206

Give 3 mycotoxins of current concern

Aflatoxins

Ochratoxin A

Fusarium

207

Tetraterpenes are...

Colours

208

Caramel is...

A colour

209

Give a Type A and a Type B Trichothecenes

Type A: T-2 toxin

Type B: deoxynivalenol

210

Vitamin A

211

What is the mass-fraction unit for parts per trillion?

ng/kg

212

Give the structure of Isoprene

213

DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is...

A Contaminant

Pesticide

214

10 carbon chain prefix

Dec-

215

Phenoxy

Also writen as ArO•

relatively less reactive than other antioxidants

 

216

6 carbon chain prefix

Hex-

217

Carotenoids are...

Colours

218

Anisole

219

Lugduname

220

What process is shown in the reaction?

Photooxidation of Lipids

221

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

222

Cellulose is...

A Gelling Agent

223

2-phenylphenol / OPP is...

A Preservative

224

Anoxomer is...

A polymeric Antioxidant

225

Cis Decaline

226

Ethylene glycol

227

Octyl Gallate is...

An Antioxidant

228

Pectins are rich in...

D-galacturonic acid

229

Acetyle Chloride

230

Give a reaction of Nucleotide Formation

231

Antimicrobial Agents are used in food against...

Bacteria, Yeasts and Moulds

232

C7H16

Heptane

233

Bile Acid

234

C3H8

Propane

235

The product of an Acid Catalysed reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol is...

An ester

236

Amarogentin is...

A Flavour Enhancer

237

Give the Acyl Functional Group

238

Benzaldehyde

239

7 carbon chain prefix

Hept-

240

Nitrites and Nitrates are...

e.g Sodium Nitrite

Preservatives

241

Name the functional group

Primary Amine

amino- / -amine

242

Name the functional group

Ketone

-oyl- / oxo- / -one

243

Name the functional group

Secondary Amine

amino- / -amine

244

Thiomersal is...

A Contaminant

thought to cause autism

245

Ethoxyquin is...

An Antioxidant

246

Saccharin is...

A Sweetner

247

Give the structure of a Flavour Enhancer

Xylitol

248

2 carbon chain prefix

Eth-

249

Give the Structure of Cholesterol

250

Thiabendazole is...

A Preservative

251

Salicylaldehyde

252

What is an Epimer?

Diastereomets that differ in the configuration of one stereogenic center

253

C11H24

Undecane

254

Mixtures containing the enantomers with ratio of 1:1 are called...

Racemic Mixture

255

Resorcinol

256

Acesulfame Potassium / Acesulfame K is...

A Sweetner

257

4 carbon chain prefix

But-

258

Tocopherols are...

Antioxidants

259

Monellin is...

A Sweetner

260

Name the functional group

Cyanate

cyanato- / -alkyl cyanate

261

Name the functional group

Alkene

alkenyl- / -ene

262

Ascorbyl Sterate is...

An Antioxidant

263

Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone / NHDC

A Sweetner

264

The S and R designators are used to indicate...

Absolute configuration

265

Borax is...

A Preservative

266

Thaumatin is...

A Sweetner

267

Pyrene

268

Give the reaction for the combustion of propane

C3H8 + 5O→ 3CO2 + 4H2O

269

Indicated in the red box is a...

Secondary Alcohol

sec-alcohol

270

Name the functional group

Carboxylic Acid

carboxy- / -oic acid

271

Hydroquinone

272

Write the reaction of T-butyl Chloride and NaOH

What kind of reaction is this?

Nucleophilic Substitution

273

Which receptors are Umami tasted with?

Glutamate Receptors

274

What is shown in the red box

A c-glycoside glycosidic bond

Carminic Acid Molecule

275

Indicated in the red box is a...

Tertiary Alcohol

ter-alcohol

276

Penicillnes (general formula)

277

Name the Functional Group

Sulfonic Acid

278

Curcumin is...

A Colour

279

Testosterone

Note double oxygen bond - Ketone

280

Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids are...

Contaminants

Pesticides

281

Animals fats and vegetable fats are...

Triacylglyceros

Triglycerides

282

Ethyl Gallate is...

An Antioxidant

283

Fumonisin B1 is...

A Contaminant

Formed by Maize Moulds

284

Lead is...

A Contaminant

285

What is characteristic of alkenes?

Double bonding

286

C20H42

Icosane

287

Give the Structure of Glucose

288

Formula to calculate the Difference/Distance between two colours

ΔE = E- E= hc/λ

λ = Wavelength

h = Planck's

c = Speed of Light

289

The R and S descriptors do not specify...

...the sign (+ or -) of the optical rotation

290

Xanthophylls are...

Colours

291

Name the general formula

Secondary Alcohol

292

8 carbon chain prefix

Oct-

293

Putrescine

294

Pectins are...

Gelling Agents

295

Biphenyl is...

A Preservative

296

Vitamin C / Ascorbic Acid

297

C10H22

Decane

298

Erythritol is...

A Sweetner

299

Chlorophyllin

Note the Copper Cation

300

Fish and shellfish accumulate...in their bodies

Mercury

methylmercury cation

301

Give the Structure of a preservative

Biphenyl

302

Locust bean gum is...

A Gelling Agent

303

Methamidophos is...

A Contaminant

Pesticide

304

Give the Structure of Paracetamol

305

tert-Butylhydroquinone / TBHQ is...

An Antioxidant

306

Give the Structure of a Gelling Agent

Dextrin

307

What causes the tetrahederal structure?

Sp3 Hybridisation

308

Give the "Oxidation Line"

309

Give four Oxidising agents

KMnO- Potassium Permanganate (Strong)

K2CrO4 - Potassium Cromate

K2Cr2O- Potassium Dichromate

H2O- Hydrogen Peroxide (Strong)

310

H2SOin a reaction usually means...

Water Elimination

311

Give the structure of a Nucleotide

312

Give the Iodoformprobe reaction

313

Give the reaction for ester formation

314

Give the Structure of D-Fructose

315

Give the structure of L-Fructose

316

Give the Structure of D-Glucose

317

Give an example of Radical Substitution

318

What is an example of Nucleophilic Substitution?

T-butyl Chloride + NaOH

319

Give an example of an elimination reaction

320

Give an example of Electrophilic Substitution

321

Give an example of a Redox reaction

322

Give an example of Nucleophilic Addition

323

Give an example of Electrophilic Addition